Basic Concept of Migration

 Migration is a societal phenomenon that dates back to the dawn of civilization. In fact, the migration of people from one area to another has a significant impact on the evolution of human society and the rise of civilizations in different parts of the world. In hunting and gathering civilizations, our forefathers moved from place to place in search of food. Hoards and bands of humans traveled from one place to another in search of pastures for domestic animals, primarily cattle and horses, during the nomadic pastoral stage. Pastoralist societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, especially India, still have this attribute.

Due to numerous military confrontations, wars, and invasions, people continued to travel. On hearing of an imminent invasion, residents in a city or the capital of a state would evacuate en masse, leaving the city depopulated, as happened during Taimur the Lame's attack of Delhi in the fourteenth century. Alternatively, people might move on the orders of an emperor who wanted to establish a new capital. Mohammed bin Tughlaq, for example. One such forced migration episode is described in the phrase "Dilli se Daulatabad" (from Delhi to Daulatabad). Small waves of migration persisted as individuals relocated for trade, commerce, and land grants, settling in various locations. Individuals are also affected by migration. You may have moved from a village to a city, a city to another, or a country to another. It's possible that your family relocated from a village to a city.

Definition and Types

Any permanent or semi-permanent shift of normal place of residence from one settlement to another is referred to as migration. It encompasses both spatial and temporal dimensions. It necessitates a total change of place over an extended period of time. 

For example, moving from one area of town to another or moving to a new location for a few months would not be considered migration.It differs from 'circulation,' which refers to cyclical short-term repeating motions (e.g., the movement of labourers from one state to another or from one location to another for a few months during a specific time of year). 

People that migrate in this manner have no intention of staying in their new location permanently or even for a suitable period of time. Another type of migration is transhumance, which is the seasonal movement of pastoralists and their herds up and down the hills.

On the basis of motive, distance, and time, migration can take many forms. Migration can be both economic and social, depending on the incentive for moving. Long-distance migration and short-distance migration are two types of migration. Similarly, depending on the length of residence, migration might be short-term or long-term.

In-migration and out-migration are two types of movement based on location

  1. Out-migration is the movement out of a certain location,
  2.  whereas in-migration is moving into a specific area.
 Migrants from Bihar to Delhi, for example, are referred to as 'in migrants' for Delhi and 'out migrants' for Bihar. The beginning or departure point of a move is referred to as the origin or departure point.

The point at which the movement comes to a halt is known as the point of arrival or point of the goal. Internal migration, or migration within a country, is the sum of in-migration and out-migration.

The difference between the number of in-migrants and out-migrants in a location is known as net migration. It can be favorable or unfavorable. When in-migrants outnumber out-migrants, net migration is positive, and the region experiences net inmigration. If the number of out-migrants exceeds the number of in-migrants, net migration is negative, and the region is experiencing net out-migration. We refer to migration that occurs between countries' physical borders as international migration.

In the context of international migration, the terms immigration and emigration are used to describe in-migration and out-migration, respectively.

The total number of immigrants/in-migrants and emigrants/out-migrants is referred to as the volume of migration or gross migration (Bhende and Kanitkar, 2006). Individual or mass migration can be classified based on the number of people involved. It might also be compulsory or optional.


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