Everything about preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare, often known as prophylaxis, refers to actions used to avoid sickness. Disease and disability are dynamic processes that begin before individuals realize they are affected and are influenced by environmental variables, genetic predisposition, disease agents, and lifestyle choices. Anticipatory actions, which can be classified as primal, are used to avoid disease.  prevention, primary, secondary, and tertiary.

Millions of people die each year from preventable causes. According to a 2004 study, nearly half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were caused by avoidable behaviors and exposures. Cardiovascular illness, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional traumas, diabetes, and some viral disorders were among the leading causes. According to the same study, 400,000 individuals die in the United States each year as a result of poor food and a sedentary lifestyle.

According to WHO estimates, nearly 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, with two-thirds of this group dying from non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular and lung disorders. This is an increase from the year 2000 when these diseases were responsible for 60% of deaths.

Given the worldwide rise in the prevalence of chronic diseases and fatalities from these diseases, preventive healthcare is extremely crucial. Disease prevention can be accomplished in a variety of ways. One of them is educating teenagers about the dangers of smoking.  Even if they feel healthy, adults and children should aim to see their doctor for regular check-ups to perform disease screening, identify disease risk factors, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, and maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Encourage parents to turn down the temperature of their home water heater to avoid scalding burns, encourage children to wear bicycle helmets, and suggest that people use the Air Quality Index (AQI) to check the level of pollution in the outside air before engaging in sporting activities are all examples of primary prevention in pediatrics.

Level of  Prevention

Primary, secondary, and tertiary preventative techniques are stated as taking place at the primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Hugh R. Leavell and E. Gurney Clark established the phrase primary prevention in the 1940s after Sara Josephine Baker championed it as preventive medicine in the early twentieth century.

They collaborated at Harvard and Columbia University Schools of Public Health and later expanded the levels to include secondary and tertiary prevention. Although the phrases primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention are still in use today, Goldston (1987) suggests that these levels be better defined as "prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation."

The concept of primal prevention was developed much more recently, in response to recent advances in molecular biology, particularly in epigenetics, which point to the critical importance of physical and emotional environmental conditions on the organism during its fetal and newborn life, or the so-called primal period of life.

1-Primal prevention

Based on the knowledge that epigenetic processes begin at conception, primal prevention has been proposed as a separate category of health promotion (Primal and primordial preventions). The term "primordial prevention" refers to steps taken early in life to prevent the formation of risk factors.

Primal prevention is the pinnacle of health promotion. New research in molecular biology, particularly epigenetics, suggests that the emotional and physical environment during fetal and newborn life may have a significant impact on adult health. This method of health promotion focuses on giving future parents relevant, unbiased information about primal health and assisting them during their child's primal phase of development ("from conception to first anniversary" according to the definition by the Primal Health Research Centre, London).

This comprises enough parental leave for both parents, ideally for both, as well as kin caring and financial assistance as needed. 

Primordial prevention refers to "all population-level actions and measures that inhibit the emergence and establishment of adverse environmental, economic, and social conditions," as Ruth Etzel defined it, "all population-level actions and measures that inhibit the emergence and establishment of adverse environmental, economic, and social conditions." This could include things like lowering air pollution or banning endocrine-disrupting chemicals from food-handling equipment and food-contact materials.

2-Primary Prevention

Methods for preventing disease, either by removing disease agents or by improving disease resistance. Immunization against disease, a good diet and exercise routine, and not smoking are just a few examples. Traditional health promotion and "particular protection" make up primary prevention. Health promotion activities include prevention strategies such as health education and lifestyle medicine, as well as current, non-clinical lifestyle choices like eating nutritious meals and exercising on a daily basis, which help to prevent lifestyle-related medical conditions, improve quality of life, and create a sense of overall well-being.  Life expectancy is increased by preventing disease and promoting overall well-being.

3. Secondary Prevention

Secondary prevention focuses on latent diseases and aims to keep an asymptomatic condition from becoming symptomatic.  Primary and secondary diseases can be distinguished. This varies on how an illness is defined, but in general, primary prevention attempts to address the root cause of a disease or injury, whereas secondary prevention aims to diagnose and treat a condition as soon as possible.

Secondary prevention includes "early diagnosis and prompt treatment" to contain the disease and prevent it from spreading to other people, as well as "disability limitation" to prevent future problems and impairments. A course of antibiotics to eliminate the pathogen, as well as screening and treatment of any infants born to syphilitic mothers, would be included in an early diagnosis and fast treatment for a syphilis patient. Continuous checks on the heart, cerebrospinal fluid, and central nervous system of syphilitic patients are required to prevent any harmful effects such as blindness or paralysis.

4. Tertiary Prevention

Finally, tertiary prevention focuses on mental, physical, and social rehabilitation to lessen the damage caused by symptomatic disease. Unlike secondary prevention, which attempts to prevent disability, tertiary prevention aims to maximize an already impaired patient's remaining capabilities and functions. Preventing pain and damage, stopping disease development and consequences, and restoring the health and functions of those afflicted by the disease are all goals of tertiary prevention.
For these individuals, it is recommended that they employ apparatus with enough ventilation and airflow to prevent disease progression and consequences. According to a study conducted in nursing homes to prevent infections, using evaporative humidifiers to keep indoor humidity between 40 and 60 percent can lower respiratory risk. Certain diseases flourish at varying humidity levels, therefore using humidifiers can help kill disease-causing particles.


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