In India, tribals are at the bottom of the social and political scale. In post-independent India, the demands of planned development imposed the prospect of dams, mines, industries, and roads on tribal territory. Their primary concern is land alienation.
They have been disenfranchised from their land since colonial times. Their lands were appropriated in the name of development or by money lenders in order to recoup loan losses. Additionally, conserving forests for conservation purposes meant that indigenous people were kept away from their habitats and economic sources. Railway growth in India has wreaked havoc on the country's forest resources. In Andhra Pradesh, for example, non-tribals hold more than half of tribal land. In Orissa, 54% of tribal land is lost to non-tribals as a result of debts, mortgages, and coercive occupation.
Land alienation frequently occurs as a result of tribal members' ignorance incorrectly recording their land, the neglect of officials involved, and even outright corruption in evicting tribal members from their property. By leasing these lands in Goa, the mining industry endangered indigenous rights to farm. Additionally, by polluting the land, soil, and rivers, indigenous members are unable to maintain subsistence livelihoods.
The majority of tribes are impoverished. Currently, indigenous tribes reside in areas with the highest levels of food insecurity.
2-Tribes and Debt
Due to their poverty, tribal members are heavily indebted to local money lenders.
Loss of access to non-timber forest products (NTFPs) due to deforestation, preference for man-made plantations over mixed forests, regulatory framework, diversion of NTFPs and forests to industries, nationalisation of NTFPs, and exploitation of NTFPs by government agencies and contractors has resulted in a loss of livelihood for tribal communities.
Tribes lose their livelihoods as a result of projects such as big irrigation dams, hydroelectric projects, open-cast and underground coal mines, super thermal power plants, and mineral-based industrial units. Tribal peoples are evicted from their lands in the cause of development.
traditional habitats and livelihoods with little or no rehabilitation, and become destitute and impoverished as a result. Tribes lose land not only to project authorities but also to nontribal outsiders who congregate in these areas and seize both the land and new economic opportunities in commerce and petty industry.
Tribal communities engage in shifting cultivation, a practice that has been practiced for generations. This is becoming more difficult as communities receive less and less forest land.
The tribal areas suffer from poor governance. Everywhere in India, but particularly in tribal areas, program delivery has deteriorated. Posts are frequently transferred from tribal to nontribal areas.
The tribal culture is undergoing a revolution as a result of contact with other cultures. This has resulted in the degeneration of tribal life and tribal arts such as dance, music, and various types of craft, and has also raised concerns about cultural identity preservation.
7-Inadequate Sensitivity in Addressing Tribal Anger Against the Exploitative System
The tribal people's resource base has dwindled as a result of land loss, restrictions on access to forest products, and a lack of opportunities for reasonable wage employment and money lending. Notably, development processes have frequently interfered with the traditional tribal institutional structure and ethos, resulting in negative outcomes. Rather than providing assistance, development in many tribal areas has resulted in a slew of disadvantages, chief among them displacement and loss of land, the tribals' primary resource base. Despite the fact that state governments have enacted laws/regulations regulating/prohibiting land alienation, land alienation continues. Numerous governmental policies and development interventions have estranged indigenous tribes from their natural resource base and reduced them to poverty as a result of land loss.
Education While the tribal population varies in terms of educational attainment, formal education has had a negligible impact on tribal communities.
As previously stated, tribal communities are different groups of people with distinct ways of life-based on their interaction with the environment, as well as distinct habitats, social structures, and economies. No two tribes are alike. Along with these qualities, we've observed some that are unique to denotified and nomadic tribes. The British authority has mistakenly and unjustly classified these tribes as criminal tribes. As a result, they have faced significant suffering as a result of segregation facilitated by the criminal tribe's act. Following independence, this statute was repealed, and various attempts have been made to reinstate it.
Additionally, we have seen how these unique characteristics render them sensitive to the shifting needs of modern existence. Their homes and lives are no longer as free as they formerly were. Their existence is mediated by external influences. Their natural source of income might be snatched away, and they can simply become homeless. Centuries of exploitation have weakened the ecological foundations of natural resources.