Nature and Characteristics of Human Society's Evolution


  1. Introduction
  2. Evolution of Human Society
  3. Society as a System of Relationship
  4. Individual and The Society
  5. Socialization
  6. Summary
  7. References


The social nature of human life is its most distinguishing trait. In order to survive, all humans must interact with one another. Man is a member of society, and he is reliant on it for his life. As a result, man is compelled to live in society by both nature and necessity. Man has been attempting to comprehend the social environment since the dawn of time, and in his quest for knowledge, he has developed several social sciences such as sociology, history, economics, political science, and psychology. However, in this effort to study society, the study of society, its functioning, the social relationships that exist within it, and social interactions has been extremely important. While studying the evolution of society, its systems and structures, the development of institutions and their functions, the customs and rules governing social relationships, the groups and communities formed by man throughout history, the nature and interdependence of these groups such as family, government, economic groups, religious groups, and the phenomenon of social change, it is essential to study the evolution of society, its systems and structures, the development of institutions and their functions, the customs and rules regulating social relationships, the groups and communities formed by man throughout history, the nature In this chapter, we'll look at society, the individual-society interaction, society's constituents, and the socialization process.

Evolution of Human Society

Society is a complicated web of interconnected relationships of varying degrees of complexity. Society progresses through many stages and through massive transformations. Society was relatively simple at its most rudimentary stage, and each individual lived an individualistic life, attempting to discover and accomplish things about himself/herself alone. In terms of his lack of understanding of organised life, each man was more or less the same. People were naturally homogeneous in this sense. They couldn't coordinate their social lives, and they couldn't work together in the early stages. As a result, the primitive civilization was homogeneous and had straightforward social relationships. However, as time passed, society evolved into a complex web of social connections that were varied in nature.

Evolution Theory According to Herbert Spencer

Charles Darwin's idea of evolution was related to organisms. Herbert Spencer was one of the first sociologists to introduce theory into the discipline. Herbert Spencer, the man who coined the biological analogy for society, believed that society, like organisms, goes through many stages of growth. Herbert Spencer's evolutionary system was first articulated in 'First Principles' and then again in 'Principles of Sociology.'

As we all know, the theory of evolution states that simple organisms evolved into complex organisms over hundreds of centuries. Similarly, the evolutionary perspective explains that civilization went through several stages before arriving at its current complex state. Because the evolutionary theory of society is based on the idea that society resembles an organism, the Organismic theory must be mentioned. Organismic theory views society as a biological system, a larger organism with similar structure and function, showing the same type of unit as the individual organism, and subject to the same rules of development, maturation, and decline as the individual organism. Individual people make up society's cells, while associations and institutions make up its organs and systems. According to Herbert Spencer, society has its youth, prime, old age, and death.

The principles of evolution, according to Spencer, are: (a) that forces tend to persist; (b) that matter is indestructible; and (c) that everything moves along the lines of least resistance or greatest attraction, impelled by some source, matter tends to integrate with a concomitant dissipation of motion. "Evolution is the integration of matter and the simultaneous dissipation of motion during which matter transitions from an undefined incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity," Spencer explained. According to Spencer, society is undergoing a similar evolutionary process, transitioning from "incoherent homogeneity" to "coherent heterogeneity." As a result, evolution is a continuous progression from a simple to a complex existence.

There was no system, nothing definite in prehistoric society, save for their incoherent or loose group groupings. They created a 'indefinite, incoherent homogeneity as a result. However, their experiences, realisations, and wisdom grew through time. They learned to coexist and collaborate. The process of social organization was undertaken, a division of labour was devised, and each individual identified a specific form of employment in which they excelled. Everyone worked in a well-organized and methodical manner toward a certain goal. As a result, there existed a state of 'clear, coherent heterogeneity.'

The development from simple societies to various stages of compound societies, according to Spencer, is the most important aspect of evolution. Compound societies developed from the aggregation of some simple societies; doubly compound societies arose from the aggregation of doubly compound societies; and trebly compound societies arose from the aggregation of doubly compound societies. A simple society is made up of families, a compound society is made up of families combined into clans, a doubly compound society is made up of clans unified into tribes, and a trebly compound society, like ours, is made up of tribes unified into nations or states. As the group grows in size, so does the structure, as well as the disparities in authority and occupations among the members.

Development of Society According to August Comte

August Comte, the father of sociology, had also provided a well-coordinated theory of societal development. The Law of Three Stages was the foundation of Comte's idea of society's development or evolution. Human knowledge progresses via three phases, according to his Law; or, to put it another way, there are three various ways in which the human mind understands occurrences, each one leading to the next in a sequential manner. The three stages are as follows:
  1. Fictitious or Theological State: In this phase, the human mind attempts to comprehend the essential nature of creatures, the first and final causes (the origin and purpose) of all effects, in short, Absolute knowledge. 
  2. Metaphysical or Abstract State: This state differs from the first in that the mind believes in abstract forces and personified abstractions rather than supernatural beings who are inherent in all beings and capable of causing all happenings. 
  3. The Positive or Scientific State: In this state, the mind abandons its futile search for absolute conceptions, the origin and destination of the cosmos, and the causes of events, and instead devotes itself to the study of their laws, or their invariable sequence and similarity relations. This information is gained through a combination of reasoning and observation.

The stages of human thinking and social organisation, according to Comte, are inextricably linked. In other words, according to Comte, each style of human thought corresponds to a specific social order.

Political occurrences, for example, were explained by God's will, and political authority was based on divine right while the human mind was in theological state. Theological philosophy was dominated by military and monarchial social order. Kings were seen as God's direct ambassadors on earth, controlling society under God's supervision.

Political authority was based on abstract right notions in the metaphysical state of mind. Divine rights were abandoned in favour of natural rights, which determined human political relations. The legal aspect of social organisation was developed, resulting in a formal and structural social organisation.

In the positive stage, society transitions to the industrial era. At this point, positivism, or a scientific outlook, characterises all of our knowledge.

Material inventions and, as a result, proper use of natural resources were the result of a scientific outlook.

Characteristics of the Evolution of Society

  • Movement from simple to a complex society 
  • Homogeneity to heterogeneity 
  • Gradual and slow process 
  • An adaptation to changing environment and social context 
  • Series of related changes in social system 
  • Progress towards greater size, coherence and definiteness.

It is unmistakable that society, as it exists today, has come a long way by observing and adapting to gradual but continuous changes. Change in any aspect of society did not happen overnight. Nonetheless, social change has been constant, and society is an ever-changing phenomenon that grows, decays, renews, and accommodates itself to changing conditions, undergoing vast changes over time.

Society as a System of Relationship

According to Aristotle, man is a sociable animal by nature. Humans are social animals who live in groups. Humans are not the only creatures who live in civilizations, though. Ants, termites, birds, monkeys, apes, and a slew of other animals perform the same thing. However, just because these creatures live in a group does not indicate they have a 'society' among themselves, or that human civilization is the same as animal society.

To distinguish between animal and human societies, one must first define society and the social bonds that exist in human society.

The term 'society' in sociology refers to a complex pattern of interaction rules that emerge among a group of individuals. 'Society,' on the other hand, is a term used to describe the members of a given group and is commonly understood in reference to concrete observations. In sociology, persons are only valuable as agents of intangible social interactions. As a result, society is a system of relationships, a pattern of interaction standards through which society's members maintain themselves.

Definition of Society

"It is the network of social ties," MacIver and Page described society. "Society may be defined as the complete complex of human interactions insofar as they grow out of activity in terms of mean end relationship, intrinsic or symbolic," according to T. Parsons.

"Society is the union itself, the organisation, the sum of formal connections in which associating individuals are joined together," Giddings described society. Lapiere was particularly interested in the society's complicated pattern of interaction. "The term society refers not to a set of people, but to the complex pattern of interaction standards that emerge among and amongst them," he says. Prof. Wright underlined that a group of people does not have to be referred to as a society. "Society is not a collection of people; it is the system of interactions that exists between the group's individuals," he explained.

When it comes to defining society and the relationships that exist within it, there are generally two perspectives.

1) A functional approach: Society is defined as a complex of groups in reciprocal relationships interacting on one another, allowing human organisms to carry on their life-activities and assisting each individual in fulfilling his or her wishes and achieving his or her interests in collaboration with other members of the group. The method uses social relationships as a tool to achieve a specific goal.
2) Structural approach: This method views society as the sum total of folkways, mores, and institutions, as well as habits, attitudes, and ideals. To put it another way, the entire civilization may be divided into systems of social ties that are intertwined.

Once the 'social' character of relationships is recognised, the discussion on society will be much easier. According to some sociologists, society only exists when its members are acquainted with one another and share shared interests or objects. When two people travel by train, their relationship of sharing a compartment and being in the same place at the same time does not create a society. However, the element of society is formed as soon as people get to know each other. As a result, any social relationship requires reciprocal awareness.

Furthermore, physical proximity is not the only factor that influences a social interaction. We can see that there is a distinct difference between the interactions of inanimate items and human beings by examining the relationships of sun and earth, fire and smoke, and typewriter and desk. The typewriter and the desk are in perfect condition.

comprehensible sense of being aware of one another's existence Mutual awareness has no bearing on their relationship in any manner. There is no social tie or society without this acknowledgement. Individuals can only exist in society if they are psychically aware of one another's presence. This is why 'reciprocal awareness' is used to describe social relationships. To further elucidate the meaning and nature of social interactions, it may be stated that society only exists when social beings act in ways that are determined by their recognition of one another. Any such determined relationships are referred to as 'social'.

Society as a Web of Social Relationships

Individuals' mutual interactions and interrelationships build society, which is also a structure formed by these relationships. The people that make up society must recognise their similarities and interconnectedness. They must have a sense of belonging. Society is the entire system of social relationships, not just an agency for the comfort of humans. The social relationship between a mother and her child, for example, can be seen in their attitudes toward one another. The social fact, not the biological fact, is what gives rise to society.

The true essence of society is determined by the state of mind of the individuals who make up society, not by external elements such as interdependence, resemblance, or authority. It is the pattern, not the people, that is referred to as society, and it is a process of relationships rather than a group. As a result, society might be defined as a pattern or system of social ties.

A certain level of affiliation exists in all communities. Similarly, society is more of a mental condition or quality than a physical structure. The people that make up society must recognise their similarities and interconnectedness. Individual interactions must conform to societal norms, and so, society is more than just a collection of people; it is also the system of relationships that exists among the members of that group.

It's important to remember that society is a long-term institution. Its origins date back to the dawn of time and extend to the farthest reaches of the globe where people live together. It is a type of natural organisation that has arisen from man's innate inclinations. That is why Aristotle correctly stated that man is a social animal by nature. This suggests that society will continue to exist as long as man does.

Characteristics of Society

  1. Society involves Similarity: There could be no mutual acknowledgment of "belonging together" and, as a result, no society without likeness and the sensation of likeness. Society is made up of people who are physically and mentally similar to one another and are close enough or intelligent enough to notice it.
  2. Society is based on differences: While resemblance is the foundation, society is also based on disparities. People's social ties would be as limited as those of biological animals like ants and bees if they were all alike. Ants and bees do not have reciprocity because each of its members is unique. Different personalities complement one another in human civilization, and there is meaningful social interaction. There is an inextricable interplay of likenesses and differences in our society. At every level of society, the reciprocal relationship of differences may be recognised. Family, for example, is based on the biological difference between men and women. In society, there are also natural disparities in aptitude, capacity, and interest.
  3. Difference Subordinate to Likeness: Society requires similarity and dissimilarity, or likeness and differences. While diversity is important for society to function, diversity does not produce society. Likeness is subordinated to difference, or likeness takes precedence, whilst difference or dissimilarity serves as the foundation for reciprocity among society members. "Primary similarity and secondary difference establish the greatest of all social institutions - the division of labour," writes MacIver. Before it is division, the division of labour based on the principle of difference is essentially cooperation. Or it could be an intentional endeavour to combine people's various skills to achieve a common goal.
  4. Inter-dependence in the Society: Interdependence based on collaboration, in addition to resemblance, is another important component in the formation of society. Without the interdependence of its constituents, no society can exist. Members of society should be interdependent on one another and work together to keep the society running smoothly. Individuals cannot live in isolation in society because it is a requirement for them. As a result, there must be interdependence among society's members.
  5. Multiplicity of Relationships: There are hundreds or thousands of different forms of social ties in society. A family can have up to fifteen relationships based on age, gender, and generation. There is no limit to the number of possible social ties outside of the family. As diverse as civilization is complicated, so are social interactions. Social ties include voter-to-candidate interactions, mother-to-child relationships, employee-to-employer links, friend-to-friend relationships, teacher-to-student relationships, and student-to-student relationships, to mention a few. These social interactions can be classified as "economic," "political," "personal," "impersonal," "friendly," "antagonistic," and so forth.
These qualities explain the nature of society and the manner in which people interact with one another. Furthermore, the preceding discussion explains that the social nature of ties that exist between individuals in human society distinguishes human society from animal society.

Individual and The Society

Individuals who are social by nature make up society. It explains the interdependence of individuals and societies. They don't have a one-sided interaction; both are necessary for understanding the other. Individuals do not belong to the society in the same way that cells do to the organism, nor is the society merely a device to meet particular human needs. Man's core quality, his social nature, is what allows him to live in society.

It is vital to explain how man is a social animal in order to create the interaction between individual and society. Similarly, there are a few more important questions that must be addressed. What does it mean to be a member of society? What does it mean to say that society belongs to us? What exactly is the nature of our reliance on it? What do we make of the unity of the whole to which our individual lives are tethered? All of these issues are subsets of one central issue: the relationship between the unit, the person, the group, and the social system. The sections that follow will assist us in answering the aforementioned fundamental questions.

Human Beings are Social by Nature

By nature, man is a sociable animal who cannot afford to live alone. There is no known example of a human being developing normally in isolation. Individuals learn social habits and develop social attributes as a result of their daily interactions with others. There are examples that indicate that when an individual is isolated from society, the normal development of his or her personality is hampered. Two Hindu youngsters were discovered in a wolf-den in 1920 and had their powers severely hampered, according to MacIver. The younger one, who was less than two years old at the time, perished almost quickly after being rescued from the wolf-den. The second child, who was eight years old and could only walk on all fours, spoke only in wolf-like growls. She was afraid of human beings and was afraid of being around them. It required a lot of effort, compassion, and time to get her to develop some social skills. Only by living in community, by sharing shared existence with his fellow creatures, does man develop his human nature. Human characteristics that are present in children can only be developed in the presence of other people. Every individual's constitution requires society, and the social side of human life is a need.

Necessity Makes Human Beings Social

Also, man is compelled to exist in community through necessity. If he does not have the participation of his fellow creatures, many of his demands will remain unmet. Every human being is the result of a social relationship between a man and a woman. The child is raised by his parents and learns the values of citizenship in their organisation. The child is completely reliant on society for his survival. He would not survive for even a day if the parents did not provide him with safety and attention. Because the infant is weak and reliant, it is unable to protect itself for many years. Other animals' infants, on the other hand, are self-sufficient within hours after birth. A newborn calf can stand on its legs in less than an hour and begin munching grass within hours. This is also true for the majority of animals' newborns. Individuals can only meet their basic needs for food, housing, and clothes by living and cooperating with others. The significance of society for physical and mental growth is evident, and no individual can become a human being without living in society. Individuals live in groups for a variety of reasons, including fear of animals, the need to be accepted and recognised by others, and the satisfying of hunger, thirst, and sex desires. A man's drive for self-preservation, which is universal, also makes him social. As a result, man's existence in society is owing not just to his nature, but also to his needs.

Society Determines Personality

Man does not exist in society only to survive and meet his basic requirements; he lives in society to further his mental and intellectual development. Our culture is preserved by society and passed on to future generations. It shapes our attitudes, ideas, morals, and goals, both liberating and constraining our own potential. Even at the age of adulthood, the intellect of a man who lives outside of a civilization is that of a child. The cultural heritage that an individual acquires as a result of living as a member of society shapes his or her personality and consequently affects his or her mental equipment.

Theories on the Relationship Between Man and Society

The divine origin hypothesis, force theory, patriarchal and matriarchal theories, social contract theory, and organic theory are among the various hypotheses on the formation of society. According to the divine origin theory, society was formed by God. God created civilization in the same way that he created all of the world's creatures and inanimate objects. Whereas the force theory depicts society as a result of superior physical subjugation of the weaker, patriarchal and matriarchal theories depict society as a result of the spread of the family structure. Furthermore, there are two commonly recognised hypotheses among sociologists. The Social Contract theory and the Organismic theory are two of them. A brief description of these two perspectives will help to clarify the individual-society interaction.
  1. Social Contract Theory: Since at least the fifth century before Christ, numerous philosophers have viewed society as a device or mechanism purposely set up by mankind for certain objectives. According to some, such as Thomas Hobbes society is a tool for the protection of men against the consequences of their own intolerant and warring nature. According to him, man in the state of nature was in continual conflict with his neighbours on account of his basically selfish nature. In the words of Hobbes, “life of man was solitary, poor, terrible, brutish and short.” Every man was hostile to every man. To safeguard himself against the evil result, man organised himself in society in order to live in harmony with all. Locke, JJ Rousseau and Adam Smith also backed this notion. Adam Smith claimed that society is an artificial construct meant to produce a mutual economy. As a criticism to this theory it is argued that this theory tends to believe that man as individual is previous to society as man had purposely built society for the realisation of his purposes. This view is unworkable as sociality is inborn in man and he can survive only by living in society.
  2. The Organismic Theory of Society: This theory is as old as Plato and Aristotle. This theory conceives society as a biological system, a bigger organism, alike in its structure and function, exhibiting the same kind of unity as the individual organism and subject to comparable laws of development, maturation and decline. Society’s cells are individual humans; its organs and systems are associations and institutions. According to the Herbert Spencer, the state is subject to the same rules of growth and decay to which the human body is. It has its youth, its prime, its old age and death. Bluntschli and Murray have backed the organic view on the origin of the civilization. As a criticism of the organismic theory it is argued that there are substantial distinctions between society and individual organism and hence an analogy of organism cannot exactly define the relationship between man and society. In the human society the units are not fixed in their respective placements but in the case of an organism its pieces are fixed to the body. Yet second critique is that the units of a society are distributed humans and are not physically contiguous like cells of an individual or body. 
Individual and societal relationships are mutually beneficial, and neither can thrive without the other. Individuals cannot flourish without society, nor does society have any worth beyond the service it provides to its members. The society is neither antagonistic to the development of the human individual nor does it exist in and of itself.


When a human baby is born, he or she is merely a biological organism with instincts. It almost lacks all of the abilities that an adult would have. A child's only experience is clinging to its mother and sipping milk. As a result, the youngster is more of a biological organism than a social being. He progressively learns to function in society by imitating social behaviours and emotions. The youngster learns numerous things over time that it would not have known otherwise. It learns to recognise and read the faces of its parents, makes sounds, stands up, learns language, and receives education, and thus the learning process continues until the individual's death.

Meaning of Socialisation

As previously stated, socialisation is the process through which a person learns to comply to social norms, a process that allows for the long-term survival of a society and the transmission of its culture from generation to generation. The gradual process through which an individual becomes a functional member of society is known as socialisation.

Ogburn says, “Socialisation is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group”.

Socialisation according to MacIver “is the process by which social beings establish wider and profounder relationships with one another, in which they become more bound up with, and more perceptive of the personality of themselves and of others and build up the complex structure of nearer and wider association”. 

The progressive transformation of a biological person into a social person, or the process by which an individual attains the standard patterns of human behaviour, is what the term "socialisation" refers to. Socialisation, according to Lundberg, entails "complex processes of interaction through which the individual learns the habits, skills, beliefs, and standards of judgement that are necessary for his effective participation in social groups and communities." It could also be thought of as the internalisation of social norms. To put it another way, an individual feels compelled to adhere to society and internalises social rules, in the sense that these social norms are enforced by the individual rather than by external regulation. As a result, these rules become ingrained in an individual's mentality. It's an important part of social contact. Every person want to be a part of society and to be recognised by others. As a result, they direct their own actions in order to meet the expectations of others.

Individuals and society as a whole both benefit from socialisation. On the one hand, socialisation assists individuals in gaining social acceptance and status through the acquisition of social skills, while on the other side, the process of socialisation assists society in maintaining a smooth and uniform continuity. It is conceivable that the society will collapse unless its members behave in accordance with the group's rules. As a result, it is critical for society to socialise its members in order to maintain social order.

Agencies of Socialisation 

The process of socialisation starts at birth and continues indefinitely until the individual's death. As a result, a person's life is a never-ending learning process. Many agencies operate in the individual's life during his lifetime, and he learns mostly through imitation and suggestion from these agencies. Many tasks, such as standing, walking, and other essential skills, are imitated and learned by a kid. It also learns from instructions given to it in the form of language, pictures, or any other medium. An individual learns social patterns of behaviour through family, school, playmates, and other sources as a child, whereas an adult learns from religion, state, and work group, among other sources. As a result, socialisation agencies are those that assist an individual in learning new social ways of life in some way. Let us take a quick look at the major socialisation agencies.
  1. Family: The child is born into a family, where its parents and immediate relatives nurture and care for it. The parents are the ones who socialise the child first because they are the ones with whom the youngster spends the most of his or her childhood. His parents teach him speech and language. Family is rightfully referred to as the "cradle of social virtues," as it is from here that a child learns the values of love, affection, collaboration, tolerance, and self-sacrifice. As a result, family serves as the cornerstone for an individual's socialisation process.
  2. Religion : Religion shapes and directs people's behaviour through establishing behavioural standards for its adherents. Religion is a set of ideas and rituals centred on the sacred that binds people together into social groups. All religions, without exception, embrace a set of ideals and teach their adherents to uphold those values. Religious organisations, such as Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, and others, have their own set of rules that must be obeyed by their members. As a result, religion influences people's behaviour.
  3. Peer Group and Friends: A child's friendship with his peers is founded on mutual give and take, as well as cooperation and understanding. Friends are usually of similar ages, so their connection is one of equality. A youngster learns cooperative morality from his peers, and some of the more informal parts of culture, such as fashion, fads, crazes, forms of gratification, and other such knowledge, are vital from a social standpoint.
  4.  Educational Institutions: Learning obtained from textbooks, teachers, and experiments in schools, colleges, and other educational institutions plays a critical role in an individual's life. Because the number of children in school is quite high, school is the first place where a child learns discipline and formal ways of adjusting with others. It is the educational institution that allows for the optimal development of one's abilities and skills, and as a result, educational institutions assist individuals in developing their personalities in conformity with societal expectations.
  5. Profession and Employment: Work or career plays a significant role in shaping an individual's behaviour. Individuals make changes in their lives in order to pursue their career goals. And once the project is done, there will be a slew of additional adjustments. The individual is socialised by his profession, which instils in him a spirit of competition, hard work, and teamwork.
  6. State: It is an authoritarian body that makes laws, or in other words, establishes a code of conduct for citizens. State-enacted laws, such as traffic laws, property laws, and income tax laws, are enforceable, and members of society are expected to follow them. If these laws are broken, those who break them face consequences. As a result, the state maintains social conformity by enforcing these regulations, while members of society comply in order to escape state punishment. As a result, the state encourages society's functioning to be consistent.
Aside from these agencies, a person's neighbourhood, kin-group or family, marriage, and cultural institutions such as art, literature, and so on all play important roles in their lives.

Functions of Socialisation 

As previously stated in the chapter, socialisation is essential not only for society but also for individuals. Because an individual cannot survive in isolation and society cannot function without its members, a proper method for ensuring functional coexistence among society's members is required. Both of these goals are achieved through socialisation. The following are the main goals of socialisation:
  • Develops the personality of an individual and through the process of socialisation an individual learns to make use of his full mental and physical capacities. 
  • Socialisation establishes uniformity in society.
  •  It helps individuals to internalize the culture. 
  • Socialisation inculcates basic discipline among the members of society. 5) It teaches the members the performance of social roles.
It takes a lifetime to learn about life and all of its obligations, possibilities, and expectations. As stated in the preceding discussion, socialisation is a process by which people of society learn to live as members of groups and make essential adaptations to the way our lives change as we progress from youth to middle age to old age. When a child grows up, he or she continues to be socialised. It is a lifelong process that incorporates a variety of life changes and transitions, as well as a variety of socialisation agents outside of the family. Peer groups, schools, work groups, and the media are all powerful influences on how we adapt to life's changes.


You've been introduced to a variety of social topics in this Article. We've gone over some of society's most significant qualities, which will give you a rudimentary knowledge of why and how it works. Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, and Thomas Hobbes' varied theories are addressed in depth.

Some views and principles relating to society's origin and functioning are discussed. Socialisation — the mechanisms by which society influences its members to obey its values, rules, regulations, and so on — is another significant part of society that has been explored in this chapter. Individuals that are socialised are more able to adapt to society. These principles are crucial for social workers to understand since they work with individuals, groups, and communities in society. Often, a person must choose between stressing his or her individual ambitions and demands and surrendering to the wider interests of the community. She may feel exploited at times because she believes she is losing more than she is gaining. In yet another case, society may place unreasonable demands on the person, leading to abnormal behaviour.


  • Davis Kingsley (1981), Human Society, Surjeet Publications, Delhi.
  • MacIver, RM and Charles H Page (1971), Society— An Introductory Analysis, The Macmillan Press Ltd, London and Basingstoke.
  • Timasheff Nicholas S (1967), Sociological Theory: Its Nature and Growth, Random House, New York.


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