A social group is formed when a human infant is born. And soon after birth, it joins the social group and assumes the social position of a son, a daughter, a grandson, or a granddaughter. Thus, the role refers to the social position one holds as a result of one's membership in a particular social group, and it entails both rights and obligations. In the course of his or her life, an individual must play various roles, such as that of a son or daughter, a grandson, or a granddaughter. In other words, a person holds multiple social positions that are all interconnected. The term role-set refers to the collection of roles that a person occupies or performs at any given time . The implication of this is that a child learns to behave in the manner that various socializing agents expect of it. For example, a child's behavior with a parent must differ from that with his or her sister, friends, neighbors, or classmates. These roles do not have to be performed one after the other, but maybe performed concurrently; additional roles may be added or deleted. However, this is not an exhaustive list. Similarly, how one behaves with one's grandmother must differ from how one behaves with one's own mother. As a child grows, he or she learns to perceive and internalize these nuances. When a person learns a role well, he or she is able to interact with others, play other roles, and engage in role-interaction over time. This is referred to as role and role socialization. Thus, a role is a norm-based behaviour pattern. However, it has a specific meaning, such as the role of a boy-girl. In a particular society, is a part of that society's culture. How does one learn to play a role? Initially, a child simply observes and re-enacts the roles of parents and other family members. Gradually, one learns to differentiate oneself from others, as well as one's role from that of others. Learning takes place through observation, constant reinforcement, and reminders, as well as rewards for conformity and punishment for nonconformity.
Socialization at the primary and secondary levels
Psychologists classify people's needs as primary or secondary. Primacy is given to inborn needs such as thirst and hunger. Secondary needs include the desire to learn or to work, for example. Secondary needs are those that arise as a result of primary needs being satisfied. Similarly, in society, institutions are classified as primary or secondary. The family is the first social group into which a child is born; it is also the first social group that satisfies and meets the infant's primary needs. It is referred to as a primary group, whereas a school is referred to as a secondary group, as it satisfies the child's derived needs. Parents serve as the primary or primary socializing agents for their children, while school teachers serve as secondary socializing agents. Additionally, we can differentiate between primary and secondary roles, as well as primary and secondary socialization. The process of primary socialization involves the acquisition of family norms and values, whereas secondary socialization involves the acquisition of school-specific behavioral patterns, norms, and values.
Educating Children and Adults
As previously stated, socialization, or the process of learning social roles, occurs throughout life. Individuals acquire new norms and values as they become members of various social groups and institutions. For instance, when a student enters school, he or she must learn the school's discipline and the student's role. Later in life, as an adult, one must learn how to parent and shoulder family responsibilities. When one enters an occupation and becomes a member of an occupational group, he or she must become acquainted with the responsibilities and roles that come with membership in that group. For instance, an executive's role will be quite distinct from that of a small tea stall proprietor or laborer. To adopt these roles and values, individuals must be socialized. As a result, sociologists believe that socialization occurs throughout life, not just during adolescence.