Gerald Caplan (1964) describes a crisis situation as
involving a “relatively short period of psychological disequilibrium in a
person who confronts a hazardous situation that for him constitutes an
important problem which he can for the time being neither escape nor solve with
his customary problem-solving resources”. Casework interventions that address
such instances and individuals are known as crisis intervention casework.
Crisis Intervention Case Work is relevant in situations such
as the following:
·Death of a loved one
·Natural disaster like Tsunami/ Floods/Volcanic
eruption/ Famine/ cyclone/rain /fire
·Serious Health related issues /illness
Strategy of application: Interventions consist of helping
the individual or the family in solving the current problem by learning better
and hopefully healthier ways of coping with the hazardous circumstance. Crisis
intervention therefore focuses on the immediate problem situation, not on
long-standing disorders or well-established character patterns. In the crisis
intervention model, the caseworker involves in enhancing the ability of the
person to cope with the current problem of living. Intervention is for the
specific problems of interpersonal conflict, role dysfunction, and provisions
for life. Conflicts that are either conscious or akin to conscious are worked
upon. Transference is recognized and handled. Assessment is focused on the client’s
position in the family and in the community.
Essentials of Crisis-Intervention Model:
In crisis situations,
social workers need to work very fast in responding to the needs of the client
involving quick decision-making. Often, the caseworker takes up the role of an
advocate and activist.
Preventive Case Work
Preventive Case Work is largely focused on working with
clients to prevent the occurrence of an undesirable behavior or consequence.
The word „preventive‟ denotes the direction of the casework practice. The caseworker is actively involved in providing information, creating awareness,
enabling clarified thinking and empowered decision-making among the clients to
effectively avoid disruptive modes of operation. The target population usually
involves vulnerable clients who are at risk (women, children, aged, disabled,
marginalized people). These clients are helped to avoid social degradation,
thereby preventing any future problems.
Preventive Case Work practice is concerned with persons
addicted to unhealthy habits like
·Suffering from problems due to Unhealthy
·Psychological distress, and - Domestic Violence
Essentials of Preventive Casework: Preventive Casework can be either long-term method or a short-term method depending on the
problem but the ultimate goal is to prevent the problem. Environmental
modification is important to increase or decrease the existing situation of the
client both positively and negatively. Environmental modification is a good
technique to solve the problem faced by the client but it takes a lot of time
and sufficient follow-ups.
Implementation of the Intervention Plan The caseworker needs the support of the
family members in helping the client. This will help the client to function
normally in society.