Type of Social Case Work



Introduction Social Case Work has two-fold purpose: one, to address the needs of persons in different situations and two, to bring about the desired change in the person‟s life and his/her social environment. The practice of case work is given importance as it addresses the problems of individuals and families in a direct and systematic manner. The focal point of case work practice is to create and strengthen positive changes in the life of individuals that will make positive impact on the society. Initially the services were concentrated more on individuals‟ welfare and gradually expanding onto families and group settings. It is to be noted that social case work is one of the oldest and most effective methods of social work.  

The primary objective of this module is to give a glimpse of the various types of social case work practices. This unit will help the reader to understand the following:  - Types of problems or issues faced by the client - Magnitude & dynamics of the problem  - Different types of interventions that address the problems/issues.

Process of social case work

Process and Purpose of Interventions In the process of case work practice, the case worker 

1- Makes use of professional skills such as observation, description, evaluation, interpretation of the problem situation of the person who is in need of help,

2-Plans the type of interventions, and 

3-Enables the person/client  through to go through a process that helps the person to modify his/her behavior and make the necessary adjustments.  He/she applies generally recognized professional social work principles, methods, and procedures in order to prevent, treat, or eliminate an individual‟s emotional, or mental or social dysfunction. 

Type of social case work

1- Long-Term Case Work

 As it is evident from the name, the process of this type of case work has a long duration and provides assistance for a long period of time. Even in the process of long-term case work, when there is a lack of insight regarding the problem, it may give a lot of trouble to the client. Long-term case work requires working with the clients for a longer duration, wherein the case worker actively engages in a contractual working relationship with the client. The client meets the particular case worker at regular intervals and progress is made through planned interventions.  Example of long-term case work includes working with drug addicts, alcoholics and individuals having behavioral problems. 

2-Short-Term Case Work  Short-term

Case work is also known as brief case work practice. It is an innovative approach in the practice of case work and is a response to the changing social needs and commitments, revisiting our basic assumptions, conceptual models and operating principles followed in traditional practice. Brief case work treatment has been inherent in the very nature of case work theory which has embedded in it some sense of clear purpose and limit.  

3-Task Centered Case Work Practice (TCC)

Task Centered Case Work, a planned short term approach is based on the psychoanalytic perspective. It is considered as a problem solving model. The process of TCC has a sharp focus and ensures continuity. The efficacy of this approach depends on two things basically, namely, the person who has a problem should be willing to work on a specific aspect of his/her problem, and the problem should be such that it should be manageable to both the case worker and the client. Task Centered Approach can be viewed as atheoretical’ which means that it is not so much adhering to a set of top down theoretical principles but connected to real life application. In other words, it works on specific and practical elements of people‟s lives. Hence, it is considered as a bottom up process that is based on an assumption of cause and effect.


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