Type of Correctional Setting

Correction is one segment of the Criminal Justice System. A person who is accused of any crime is either convicted or acquitted by the court. Persons who are convicted by the court are lodged in a correctional setting. A person who is undergoing trial in the court may also be lodged in a correctional setting by order of the court. Thus a correctional institution or setting is a place where a person accused of or convicted of a crime is lodged for a specified period of time. 

Traditionally, the approach towards crime control was guided by the concepts of deterrence, retribution, and offender incapacitation. Deterrence refers to the various measures taken to prevent crime. Retribution means punishing someone for the wrongdoing.

Offender incapacitation refers to the act of making an individual incapable of committing a crime. These ideologies of crime control have been gradually replaced by a diversified framework of reintegrative correctional strategies. These strategies intend to assist the release inmates in their transition back into mainstream society. The whole focus is on reshaping the behaviors of the convicted offenders with the following gaol correctional institutions are fragmented on the basis of a number of factors. The main sources of fragmentation are as follows 

  1. Protection of society against crime.
  2. Develop a sense of discipline and security.
  3. Reform and rehabilitate them in the given social milieu through appropriate correctional interventions.
  4.  Equip with skills and abilities in order to help them lead a normal life as a citizen, once they get out of the correctional institution

By jurisdiction

  • Central
  • State 
  • Local 
By criminal justice function

  •  Police 
  • Courts 
  • Corrections
By location
  • Institutional 
  •  Non-institutional
By age
  • Adult 
  • Juvenile  
All these fragments come under one master classification which is statutory and nonstatutory. Statutory is the category covered under the Indian Penal Code and other laws. Correctional work with adult prisoners comes under this category wherein minor prisoners are sent to Welfare Homes. Other statutory ones come under social legislations like Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000, Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act 1956, and Bombay Prevention of Begging Act 1959. 

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