In the previous blog, we have learned about the fundamental concept of Urban Community.Here we shall look into the historical perspective of urban communities and their characteristics.
Historical Perspective of urban community
The colonial-era has changed all of these things, making cities important only if they can help the colonial rulers process and sell raw materials from the hinterland and finished goods from the empires. This is why cities grew in the past. The processing also meant that factories, like the cotton mills, were built to process raw cotton. This was made easier by the development of railroads that linked each of the trading centers to the factories. Industrialization has led to a huge increase in the number of people living in cities, as well as a culture that is very different from how cities were built before the colonization. The cities were thought of as places where people could buy and sell things like primary exports and manufactured goods. This didn't stop even when the countries that were colonized became independent.
The term "neocolonial city" refers to cities that have been built in third-world countries with money from countries that have a lot of money. These cities have become enclaves of industrial production. Most of the goods made in neocolonial cities are exported, except for a small group of people who live at home. There are factories in cities, and people who live in cities work for money. There is a growing network of transportation and communication in cities that can help these goods and workers get where they need to go. There is a lot of people moving from rural areas to cities near them. The poorest residents of the neocolonial city, such as the petty hawkers, the shoeshine boys, the household help, the rag pickers, and other people who make and sell petty goods, make up the informal economy.It is important to think about the concept of urbanization when you think about how people live in cities.
Meaning of Urbanisation
The term "urbanization" refers to the movement and redistribution of people in large human settlements with nonagricultural jobs. The majority of people live in cities of different sizes and shapes. Another way to think about urbanization is that it spreads urban values, behavior, organizations, and institutions to other places. Some of the things that make modern-day urbanization unique are:
1) The rapid growth of cities and how it affects local governments;
2) The rise in rural poverty and the release of a lot of people into the city's informal economy;
3) Urban poverty and its effect on the city's economy; and,
4) The spread of slums and their vulnerability.
The spread of cities and towns
There were 742 million people living in rural areas and 285 million people living in cities in 2001, which made up 72% and 28% of the population, respectively. Delhi has the highest percentage of people who live in cities (93%), and Himachal Pradesh has the lowest (9.8 percent In 2001, India had 35 cities and towns with more than one million people. There are 108 million Indians living in the country's 35 largest cities. That's about 10% of the country's population living there. More than 16 million people live in Mumbai, making it the fourth-largest city in the world. Kolkata (Calcutta) is in fifth place.
There are more people living in cities in Maharashtra than in Uttar Pradesh or Tamil Nadu (9.5 percent There are five states that make up about half of the country's urban population. They are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh.
In the 2001 census, there were nine districts that were fully urbanized. These were New Delhi, Kolkata, and the rest of the cities in these cities. Mumbai (suburban), Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Yanam, and Mahe are the cities (Pondicherry) In 1991, there were 129 districts where 30% of the population lived in urban areas. In 2001, there were 148 districts where 30% of the population lived in urban areas.
People living in a city slum live with more than 40 million Indians, or 22.6 percent of the city's population. There are more than 600 cities and towns in India that have slums in the city centre. Mumbai has the most people living in slums in cities with more than one million people. Patna has the least (0.25 percent ). As for the size,
Characteristics of Urban Communities
The economy, social structure, political system, cultural life, and spatial organization are some of the things that make urban communities unique. They all work together to help the region and state in particular and the country as a whole grow.
The social aspects
Secondary relationships rule in communities that aren't all the same. There must be both formal and informal ways to keep people from behaving badly. This includes law, legislation, the police, and the court. There is a lot of mobility and openness. The social status is earned rather than given. As a result, jobs become more specialised. There is a lot of division of labor and specialization, and there are a lot of jobs you can do. The family is said to be a mess. More than just the person in the family is given attention. As a general rule, there are fewer joint families than there were a few years ago In the modern world, people are more class-conscious and progressive, and they should be able to adapt to new things. They are also more aware of how science and technology have changed in the last few years. The features of an urban community stay the same, but there can be a lot of variation in the level and degree of certain features. Thus, some communities may be more modern, even though they live in the same area of the country. In the same way, there may be differences in major indicators of human development between cities, even though they are all in the same place.
Caste and Class in Urban India
Urban India has a lot of different types of people, like caste and class, but they are Despite the modernizing and secularising effects of living in cities, there are still strong caste and kinship ties in urban areas. In terms of the way people live in cities, it can be seen that there are still social relationships that are similar to those in rural areas. People in India don't always act in the same way that people in other countries think they should, and this isn't always the case in cities. Inter-caste, religious, and ethnic competition has been shown to happen, and it may also cause problems. The power structure isn't just made up of hostility and opposition that comes from one's affiliations, but also those that come from one's class as well. Caste, religion, and class lines didn't stop people from getting into fights and working together. The cities show how different types of social relationships and micro societies can coexist in the same place. These include urban, rural, semi-urban, and modern. There are also immigrants who live in between the cities and the countryside.
Families live in cities.
In cities, there are three main types of families: nuclear, joint, and extended. They are all found there.
Because most urban families have to live in areas that are cheaper to live in, their jobs are often a long way away from where they live. This puts a strain on the time that can be used for housework, childcare, and family bonding. Because of this, families are under a lot of stress. Stress at work and pollution from both indoor and outdoor air pollution has a big impact on the health and mental health of families living in cities. This is made worse by the rising costs of living in cities and the privatization of health care.
The economic aspects
Industrial and service sectors make up the majority of the city's economy. The secondary and tertiary sectors are the most important. The way the economy works is to achieve these goals in different groups and classes, with a wide range of social and economic resources. Many people work in the organized sector and much more work in the informal economy, where they make little money and don't get social security benefits. There is a lot of diversity in the labor force. One type is the organized or formal sector and the other is the informal or unorganized sector. There are two types of sectors: the formal and informal sectors. People who work in the "organized sector" have jobs that require a lot of money and resources, like capital, labour, and wages, as well as advanced and modern technology. These jobs are called "public and private sector partnerships." This industry is also very important to the world's financial and economic systems. So, any changes in the global economy have a direct effect on this one.
When it comes to capital and labor, the unorganized sector is much smaller than the organized sector. This is because the unorganized sector is run by private or family businesses that use a lot of labour, have less advanced technology and don't follow regulations. This is changing with the social security bill because it wants to protect the unorganized sector (recently ratified by the Rajya Sabha). This, too, is influenced by government policy. For example, if the government wants to protect the industry for capital or for labour, that can change things. In this way, we can talk about small-scale industrial policy and programs at the National Institute for Micro-, Small, and Medium-sized Industries. In the unorganized sector, 93% of people work. Poverty is becoming more women-friendly, especially in the informal sector where many people work. A lot of this is because their men are either not working or can't find a job in the formal economy.