Two Types of Models of Social Action Given by Britto
Social action is a process of bringing about change in society through collective action. It can be used to address a wide range of social issues, such as poverty, inequality, and injustice.
In his book "Social Action for Social Change," Britto (1984) identifies two types of models of social action: elitist and popular.
Elitist Social Action Model
The elitist social action model is characterized by the following:
It is initiated and conducted by elites, or people with high social status and power.
The masses, or the general population, are not directly involved in the process.
The goal of elitist social action is to bring about change in society, but it does not necessarily involve empowering the masses.
Britto identifies three subtypes of elitist social action:
Legislative social action: This type of social action involves lobbying for changes in laws and policies.
Sanction model: This type of social action involves using economic, social, or political pressure to bring about change.
Direct physical model: This type of social action involves taking direct action against those responsible for injustice.
Popular Social Action Model
The popular social action model is characterized by the following:
It is initiated and conducted by the masses, or the general population.
Elites may play a supporting role, but they do not have the primary responsibility for leading the movement.
The goal of popular social action is to empower the masses and to bring about change in society through their own efforts.
Britto identifies three subtypes of popular social action:
Conscientizacao model: This type of social action involves raising awareness of the root causes of injustice and empowering people to take action to change their own lives.
Dialectical model: This type of social action sees social change as a process of conflict and negotiation. It seeks to build alliances between different groups and to challenge the dominant ideology.
Direct mobilization model: This type of social action focuses on mobilizing people to take direct action against injustice. It uses tactics such as protests, boycotts, and strikes to challenge the status quo.
The two models of social action identified by Britto are not mutually exclusive. In fact, many social action movements combine elements of both models. However, the two models represent different approaches to social change, and they have different strengths and weaknesses.
The elitist social action model is often more effective at bringing about immediate change. However, it can also be seen as top-down and undemocratic. The popular social action model is often more difficult to implement, but it can be more sustainable and empowering in the long run.
The choice of which model to use depends on the specific context and the goals of the social action movement. However, both models can be effective tools for bringing about social change.
Britto, D. (1984). Social action for social change. New Delhi: Sage Publications.