Concept of Prevention and Promotion of Mental Health

Introduction

Interventions to improve mental health and wellness, as well as to prevent mental illness, are provided in a number of contexts and services, including the health sector. Planning, prioritizing, implementing, and measuring outcomes can be challenging due to its complexity. The emphasis of interventions and the manner in which they are provided can be described in a variety of ways. It's usually divided into three categories: promotion, prevention, and early intervention. It is also divided into three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

1-Promotion of mental health

Enhancing social, emotional, and mental wellness and quality of life is the goal of mental health and wellbeing promotion. Initiatives can involve whole populations, specific groups, or individuals, and they can take place in any context. It applies to everyone, even those who are suffering from or recovering from a mental illness. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which gives a fair overview of the spectrum of relevant activities, has been used to guide most of the international mental health promotion effort.

There are solutions appropriate for the entire community and especially for persons living with a diagnosed mental illness within each of the five platforms of the Ottawa Charter. Here are some examples of strategies:

  1. Stigma reduction, social inclusion, human rights, transportation, medical care, and crime prevention are examples of healthy public policy.
  2. Creating supportive environments – for example, anti-bullying programmes in schools and workplaces, family strengthening, mentoring and peer support for young people, supported housing, peer support for people with mental illness, and assisting people with mental illness to return to school or work.
  3. Community-based suicide prevention, drought relief in rural regions, consumer-led initiatives, and consumer advocacy are examples of how communities may be strengthened to take action.
  4.  Personal skill development - for example, life skills training, mental health and illness literacy, parenting skills, emotion control, and employment training.
  5.  Reorienting services to a promotion and preventive mindset — for example, services that can respond in a timely, age- and culturally appropriate manner.

Prevention treatments aim to reduce risk factors while also strengthening protective aspects linked to mental illness. These risk and protective variables manifest themselves in everyday life. Perinatal effects; family connections and the home; schools and workplaces; all forms of interpersonal interactions; sports, art, and recreation activities; media influences; social and cultural activities; individual physical health; and community physical, social, and economic health. Prevention activities, including mental health and wellness promotion, are important to all people, regardless of their mental health condition. The intervention's focus, on the other hand, varies depending on whether it happens before the start of disease (primary prevention), during an episode of illness (secondary prevention), or after an incident of illness (post-episode prevention) (tertiary prevention)

Primary Prevention:

  1. The entire community should be targeted (universal)
  2. Target groups that have been identified as being at higher risk (selected) or
  3. Identify high-risk individuals who may be exhibiting early indications of mental illness (indicated).
Secondary prevention:
Early intervention initiatives and tactics, such as early identification and treatment, are designed to reduce the severity and duration of a disease. These procedures can take place at any age, from infancy to old age. Intervention happens early in the route to mental illness, which is what sets it apart.
Early intervention refers to therapies that are tailored to persons who are exhibiting early indications and symptoms of mental illness and are especially targeted at them. Early intervention, by definition, is a type of preventative action that encompasses both primary and secondary prevention. Interventions can include the following:
  1. Treatment focused on persons having a first episode of mental illness secondary prevention); and
  2.  Prevention focused on individuals beginning to display the early indications and symptoms of a problem (indicated primary prevention).
Tertiary prevention:
Interventions and methods aimed at reducing the negative effects of mental illness on a person's life, such as rehabilitation and relapse prevention. It also involves measures to guarantee that people have access to community resources including housing, work, and social connections.

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