What is the process of Program Planning?

Program Planning Process

  1. Collection of facts and analysis
  2.  Identification of problems
  3. Determination of objectives
  4. Developing the plan of activities
  5. Carrying out the activities
  6. Continuous checking
  7. Evaluation of results
  8. Reconsideration

1-Collection of Facts and Analysis.

Workers in urban development must have a thorough understanding of people's socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological circumstances, as well as how to engage them in the development process. Information on the following items should be gathered in general

  1. A number of beneficiaries 
  2. Educational  status of beneficiaries 
  3. Communication facilities 
  4. Socio-economic status e
  5. Availability of common / community facilities 
  6. The general health of the community 
  7. Customs, traditions, institutions, peoples’ organizations operating in the area, etc.
Systematic observations, interviews, and surveys, as well as existing official records, census reports, and the prior experiences of urban development professionals, are all used to collect data. After gathering data, it is evaluated and interpreted to determine the people's issues and wants.

2- Identification of Problem
The major gaps between "what is" and "what should be" are recognized as a consequence of the facts analysis and the difficulties that contribute to such a scenario are identified. The demands of the people are represented by these gaps. For your information, the problem with the urban transportation system is as follows:
The problem of urban transportation may be traced back to a number of direct and indirect factors. Some of the interconnected factors include: the increasing population causes demand to outstrip supply, forcing individuals to rely on personal cars. These factors contribute to traffic congestion, longer travel times, pollution, a lack of safety, and an increased risk of accidents.
3-Determination of Objectives
After the people's needs and problems have been identified, they are expressed in terms of objectives and goals. The objectives reflect a forecast of the changes in the circumstances or in people's behavior that will occur. The goals might be long-term or short-term, and they must be expressed clearly.
For example, to address the above-mentioned urban transportation system problem, the objectives for a one-year ‘Mitigating Urban Transportation Problem' project may be:

  1. Educate commuters on the advantages of taking public transportation.
  2. Encourage commuters to carpool to reduce the number of vehicles on the road by at least 20%. 
4- Developing Plan and Activities 
The means and techniques for achieving each target are chosen, and an action plan, i.e. a calendar of actions, is created in order to fulfil the specified objectives. It specifies the technical information, who is responsible for what, and when the job will be finished. Seasonal, short-term, yearly, or long-term job plans are all possibilities.

Example: Prepare the following schedule of activities, print and distribute to all concerned related to above objectives.

Developing urban transportation expansion literature on the advantages of public mass transportation systems such as the Metro, including:
  1. Commuters will save time.
  2.  The journey that is both reliable and safe Reduction of pollutants in the atmosphere.
  3.  Reduction of accidents Reduction of fuel consumption.
  4. Vehicle operating expenses are reduced. 
  5. The increased average speed of road vehicles
5-Carrying Out Activities  

After the action plan has been created, arrangements must be made for delivering the required inputs, instructional aids, and urban transportation extension material, among other things, and specific action must be taken. The plan of activities will be carried out using extension techniques to encourage people and groups to think, act, and engage more effectively. To ensure the program's success, people should be included at every stage.
6-Continius Checking 
At regular intervals, review the actions that were completed. Keep detailed records of each activity to use as a benchmark for evaluating outcomes.
7-Evaluation of  the Result
It is carried out in order to assess the program's success in terms of the specified goals. This is mostly done to determine how the program has affected people's situations or behavior. The assessment includes not only the physical achievements but also the methods and techniques employed, as well as the other phases in the program-planning process, in order to identify the program's strong and weak aspects and make required adjustments in the programs.
8- Re-Consideration
The program's weak and strong aspects will be revealed through rigorous and frequent review. The program is re-evaluated in light of these considerations, and appropriate tweaks and changes are made to make it more relevant and sound.
Remember that program planning is an instructional instrument for assisting people in identifying their own problems and making timely and informed decisions, not the final outcome of urban development efforts. It is apparent from the preceding phases that the planning of reducing urban transportation problems consists of a logical set of measures. Similarly, growth plans may be created in any of the urban development sub-sectors. The program planning phase is made up of the first four phases. The action phase is made up of stages 5 and 6. T

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