Carl Rogers (1902–1987)

Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8639050
Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8639050


American psychologist Carl Ransom Roger (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was One of the pioneers of the humanistic approach (and client-centered approach) in psychology. Rogers is regarded as one of the pioneers of psychotherapy research and was given the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956 for his groundbreaking work.

Most people credit Carl Rogers  with developing the first versions of humanistic psychology and person-centered treatment. Take people's stories seriously because they provide the foundation for assisting individuals in achieving self-actualization by discovering their true identity as a fully-functioning individual. This is the fundamental tenet of the Rogerian method. In addition to laying the groundwork for a wide range of non-directive techniques based on reflective listening known as "mirroring," Rogers was one of the first psychologists to talk about clients rather than patients.

Leading theorists like Abraham Maslow and Ronald Laing, who created humanistic psychology, had a significant influence on education, child development, and psychotherapy models. It has left its mark on practically every form of linguistic treatment and child-rearing techniques, particularly through Benjamin Spock's important works. Rogers' theories have evolved into the cornerstones of the so-called "good life" of the human development movement, together with Maslow's work.

The countercultural and radical political movements of the 1960s and 1970s, when people all throughout the Western world opposed authorities by claiming their own uniqueness and citizenship rights, were foreshadowed by Rogers' perspective on human development. This is the setting in which Carl Rogers' ideas gained a lot of traction. Abraham Maslow, a colleague of his, did describe his work as "revolutionary" in 1974. The euphoric optimism associated with Rogers' method persisted until the end of the 1970s, when Christopher Lasch, a North American cultural historian, outlined some of the drawbacks of placing an excessive emphasis on one's own personal development and what was referred to as "me-ism." Lasch criticized humanistic psychology in his book The Culture of Narcissism (1979), arguing that it promotes self-glorification at the price of empathy and goodwill for others. He once asserted that Carl Rogers "had a lot to answer for as the founding father of humanistic psychology, the human potential movement, and the encounter group" in the conservative New Republic journal.

The countercultural and radical political movements of the 1960s and 1970s, when people all throughout the Western world opposed authorities by claiming their own uniqueness and citizenship rights, were foreshadowed by Rogers' perspective on human development. This is the setting in which Carl Rogers' ideas gained a lot of traction. Abraham Maslow, a colleague of his, did describe his work as "revolutionary" in 1974. The euphoric optimism associated with Rogers' method persisted until the end of the 1970s, when Christopher Lasch, a North American cultural historian, outlined some of the drawbacks of placing an excessive emphasis on one's own personal development and what was referred to as "me-ism."

Carl Rogers' foundational tenet was that individuals form a sense of "self" through processes of self-evaluation, feedback, and reflection and experience their lives as a subjective reality. A coherent self-image or identity is gradually established through the process of successful "self-realization." According to Rogers, people require positive reinforcement throughout their lives, not only while they are young. This feedback from important persons must be based on what he called "unconditional positive esteem" for someone to grow into a fully functional individual; otherwise, they risk developing "defence mechanisms" and damaging, even pathological, personality traits. If this occurs, person-centered therapy may provide a remedy, but Rogers claimed that for this to be successful, the therapist must follow three key principles. By exhibiting unequivocal positive esteem and empathy for their predicament and sentiments, they should help the client to establish congruence between their actual and ideal "selves."

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