25 MCQ on Research Methods II: Experimental Research

25 MCQ on Research Methods II: Experimental Research 

Question 1:

Which of the following is a key characteristic of experimental research? a) Observational analysis b) Manipulation of variables c) Surveys and questionnaires d) Literature review

Answer: b) Manipulation of variables

Question 2: In experimental research, the group that is exposed to the experimental condition is called the: a) Control group b) Treatment group c) Experimental group d) Comparison group

Answer: b) Treatment group

Question 3: A variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment is known as the: a) Dependent variable b) Independent variable c) Confounding variable d) Control variable

Answer: b) Independent variable

Question 4: Which of the following is an example of a dependent variable in an experiment? a) Age of participants b) Experimental conditions c) Outcome of interest d) Experimental group size

Answer: c) Outcome of interest

Question 5: The purpose of a control group in an experiment is to: a) Receive the experimental treatment b) Provide a baseline for comparison c) Manipulate the independent variable d) Ensure random assignment

Answer: b) Provide a baseline for comparison

Question 6: Random assignment in an experiment helps to: a) Ensure that all participants are identical b) Minimize confounding variables c) Select the control group d) Define the research question

Answer: b) Minimize confounding variables

Question 7: Which of the following is a potential limitation of experimental research? a) Lack of control over variables b) Difficulty in replicating results c) Limited external validity d) Bias in participant selection

Answer: c) Limited external validity

Question 8: A single-blind study means: a) Only the researchers know the group assignments b) Neither the researchers nor the participants know the group assignments c) Only the participants know the group assignments d) The study is conducted in a confidential setting

Answer: a) Only the researchers know the group assignments

Question 9: The term "placebo" in an experiment refers to: a) An inactive substance or treatment b) The variable being measured c) The control group d) The independent variable

Answer: a) An inactive substance or treatment

Question 10: A pretest-posttest design involves: a) Measuring the dependent variable before and after the experimental manipulation b) Randomly assigning participants to different conditions c) Using a control group for comparison d) Manipulating the independent variable repeatedly

Answer: a) Measuring the dependent variable before and after the experimental manipulation

Question 11: External validity in experimental research refers to: a) The ability to replicate the study's findings b) The accuracy of the measurements taken c) The generalizability of the study's results to the real world d) The control over confounding variables

Answer: c) The generalizability of the study's results to the real world

Question 12: What is a within-subjects design in experimental research? a) Participants are randomly assigned to different conditions b) Each participant is exposed to all conditions in the study c) Participants are grouped based on specific characteristics d) Researchers observe participants in their natural environment

Answer: b) Each participant is exposed to all conditions in the study

Question 13: A factorial design in experimental research involves: a) Manipulating one independent variable b) Manipulating multiple independent variables c) Having a single group of participants d) Using a between-subjects design

Answer: b) Manipulating multiple independent variables

Question 14: Informed consent in experimental research refers to: a) Informing participants of the study's results b) Providing compensation to participants c) Ensuring that participants voluntarily agree to participate and understand the study's purpose and risks d) Obtaining permission from the institutional review board

Answer: c) Ensuring that participants voluntarily agree to participate and understand the study's purpose and risks

Question 15: The Hawthorne effect refers to: a) Participants altering their behavior because they know they are being observed b) A type of statistical analysis used in experiments c) The influence of confounding variables on the study's results d) The impact of experimenter bias

Answer: a) Participants altering their behavior because they know they are being observed

Question 16: What is a placebo effect in an experimental study? a) The actual effect of the independent variable b) The unintended influence of confounding variables c) Participants' response to an inactive substance or treatment d) The outcome of the control group

Answer: c) Participants' response to an inactive substance or treatment

Question 17: A repeated measures design involves: a) Different participants being assigned to different conditions b) Each participant experiencing all levels of the independent variable c) The control group receiving a placebo d) Participants being observed in their natural environment

Answer: b) Each participant experiencing all levels of the independent variable

Question 18: Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a between-subjects design? a) Increased participant variability b) Increased demand characteristics c) Potential order effects d) Difficulty in recruiting participants

Answer: a) Increased participant variability

Question 19: A confounding variable in an experiment is a variable that: a) Is manipulated by the researcher b) Affects the dependent variable independently of the independent variable c) Is directly related to the outcome of interest d) Is measured using a Likert scale

Answer: b) Affects the dependent variable independently of the independent variable

Question 20: Which of the following is a strength of experimental research? a) High external validity b) Ability to establish cause-and-effect relationships c) Ease of controlling extraneous variables d) Applicability to naturalistic settings

Answer: b) Ability to establish cause-and-effect relationships

Question 21: What is the purpose of using a pilot study in experimental research? a) To manipulate the independent variable b) To establish the control group c) To test the feasibility and design of the study d) To select the participants for the study

Answer: c) To test the feasibility and design of the study

Question 22: When conducting an experiment, blinding refers to: a) Concealing the purpose of the study from the participants b) Ensuring that the participants cannot drop out of the study c) Randomly assigning participants to groups d) Controlling for participant characteristics

Answer: a) Concealing the purpose of the study from the participants

Question 23: In an experiment, a Type I error occurs when: a) The researcher fails to reject a true null hypothesis b) The researcher incorrectly rejects a true null hypothesis c) The effect size is very small d) The p-value is greater than the chosen significance level

Answer: b) The researcher incorrectly rejects a true null hypothesis

Question 24: Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a within-subjects design? a) Increased likelihood of order effects b) Greater participant variability c) Difficulty in controlling extraneous variables d) Potential selection bias

Answer: a) Increased likelihood of order effects

Question 25: What is counterbalancing in experimental research? a) Randomly assigning participants to groups b) Manipulating the order of conditions to control for order effects c) Matching participants based on specific characteristics d) Providing detailed instructions to participants

Answer: b) Manipulating the order of conditions to control for order effects


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