Stigma and Discrimination Theories and Models: 25 MCQs to Help You Stay Up-to-Date

Stigma and Discrimination Theories and Models: 25 MCQs to Help You Stay Up-to-Date 

1. According to Goffman's theory of stigma, what are the three types of stigma? A. Perceived, felt, and enacted stigma B. Public, private, and anticipated stigma C. Internalized, external, and societal stigma D. Visible, invisible, and self-stigma Answer: B

2. The "Affiliation-Oriented Model" suggests that people may distance themselves from stigmatized individuals due to: A. Fear of legal repercussions B. Fear of contamination C. The desire to maintain positive social ties and avoid being stigmatized themselves D. Apathy towards social issues Answer: C

3. Social Cognitive Theory proposes that people learn stereotypes and discriminatory behaviors through: A. Innate instincts B. Direct experience and observation C. Genetic predisposition D. Random chance Answer: B

4. According to the Health Belief Model, an individual's likelihood to engage in stigma and discrimination is influenced by: A. The perceived severity and susceptibility to health issues B. Socioeconomic status only C. Education level D. The availability of healthcare facilities Answer: A

5. The Attribution Theory suggests that people tend to explain stigmatized conditions based on: A. Internal and external attributions B. Preconceived judgments C. Discriminatory beliefs D. Cultural biases Answer: A

6. The Contact Hypothesis, as a model to reduce prejudice and discrimination, proposes that: A. Increased contact between groups can reduce prejudice and discrimination B. Separating groups is the most effective way to reduce prejudice and discrimination C. Ignoring issues of prejudice and discrimination will eventually resolve them D. Prejudice and discrimination are innate and cannot be changed Answer: A

7. The "Social Identity Theory" states that individuals categorize themselves and others into social groups to enhance their: A. Awareness of personal identity B. Self-esteem and self-worth C. Privacy and exclusivity D. Apathy towards social issues Answer: B

8. According to the In-Group Favoritism model, individuals tend to show preference and favoritism towards members of their own group to enhance: A. Social harmony and cohesion B. Multiculturalism and diversity C. Fairness and equality D. Exclusivity and uniqueness Answer: A

9. The Stereotype Content Model suggests that stereotypes are shaped by two dimensions: A. Warmth and competence B. Confidence and attractiveness C. Wealth and power D. Social status and education Answer: A

10. The "Common Ingroup Identity Model" proposes that creating a shared identity among different groups can: A. Reduce prejudice and discrimination between the groups B. Further isolate the groups and reinforce prejudice C. Encourage competition between the groups D. Minimize the importance of shared identity Answer: A

11. The "Symbolic Interactionism Theory" emphasizes that stigma arises from: A. The meaning and interpretation attached to differences B. Genetic predispositions C. Media portrayal D. Socioeconomic factors Answer: A

12. The "Social Exclusion Theory" posits that stigma is a result of: A. Physical differences B. Social isolation and marginalization C. Genetic predisposition D. Lack of education Answer: B

13. The "Blaming the Victim" model suggests that individuals tend to blame stigmatized individuals for their: A. Genetic makeup B. Socioeconomic status C. Discriminatory experiences D. Inherent goodness Answer: B

14. The "Intersectionality Theory" highlights that individuals experience overlapping forms of stigma and discrimination based on: A. A single dimension of identity B. A single social group C. Multiple dimensions of identity D. Socioeconomic factors Answer: C

15. According to the Social Dominance Theory, individuals are predisposed to: A. Display kindness and empathy towards others B. Establish egalitarian societies C. Perceive hierarchies and inequalities as natural and justifiable D. Advocate for social justice Answer: C

16. The "Narrative Theory" suggests that stigma is perpetuated through: A. Positive storytelling and supportive narratives B. Negative storytelling and stereotypes C. Equal representation of diverse voices in narratives D. Ignoring the power of narratives in shaping beliefs Answer: B

17. According to the "Deviance Disavowal Model," individuals may disavow stigmatized traits to: A. Reinforce their sense of self-identity B. Challenge societal norms C. Minimize the impact of discrimination D. Embrace diversity and inclusion Answer: C

18. The "Social Ecological Model" proposes that stigma and discrimination are influenced by factors at various levels, including: A. Individual, interpersonal, community, and societal levels B. Family, neighborhood, and country levels C. Education, employment, and healthcare levels D. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral levels Answer: A

19. According to the "Moral Emotions Model," guilt and shame play a role in: A. Reducing prejudice and discrimination B. Reinforcing stereotypes and biases C. Perpetuating indifference towards social issues D. Suppressing awareness of discrimination Answer: A

20. The "Integrated Threat Theory" posits that individuals may perceive stigmatized groups as threats to their: A. Economic security, social identity, and physical well-being B. Cultural heritage and traditions C. Personal beliefs and ideologies D. Education and professional success Answer: A

21. The "Ultimate Attribution Error" refers to the tendency to: A. Attribute one's own successes to internal factors and failures to external factors B. Attribute others' successes to external factors and failures to internal factors C. Overestimate the role of genetics in shaping behavior D. Ignore the influence of societal norms on individual behavior Answer: B

22. The "Narrative Transportation Theory" suggests that engaging with compelling narratives can: A. Encourage critical thinking and analysis B. Change attitudes and reduce prejudice C. Strengthen stereotypes and biases D. Isolate individuals from diverse perspectives Answer: B

23. According to the "Minority Stress Model," the unique stressors faced by minority groups can lead to: A. Increased resilience and adaptability B. Higher self-esteem and self-worth C. Adverse mental health outcomes and stigmatization D. Social integration and acceptance Answer: C

24. The "Social Identity Performance Model" suggests that individuals may adopt stigmatized identities strategically to: A. Challenge societal norms and expectations B. Overcome discrimination and achieve success C. Conceal their true identities and blend in D. Perpetuate stereotypes about their group Answer: A

25. The "Stereotype Threat Theory" proposes that individuals from stigmatized groups may underperform in certain situations due to: A. Fear of failure and lack of motivation B. Overconfidence and complacency C. Inherent genetic predispositions D. Concerns about confirming negative stereotypes Answer: D

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