a) Income, trade and investment indicators
b) Poverty, human rights and unemployment indicators
c) Income, health and education indicators
d) Health, education and quality of life indicator
The answer is d) Health, education and quality of life indicators.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistical composite index of life expectancy, education (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher level of HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher.
The HDI was created by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian economist Amartya Sen in 1990 as an alternative to traditional measures of development such as gross national product (GNP) or per capita income. The HDI was designed to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
The HDI is calculated using the following formula:
HDI = (Life expectancy index + Education index + Income index) / 3
The Life expectancy index is calculated based on the average life expectancy at birth in a country. The Education index is calculated based on the average years of schooling completed by adults aged 25 and older and the expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. The Income index is calculated based on the gross national income (GNI) per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
The HDI is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development:
Very high human development: Countries with an HDI of 0.800 or above
High human development: Countries with an HDI of 0.700 to 0.799
Medium human development: Countries with an HDI of 0.550 to 0.699
Low human development: Countries with an HDI of 0.385 to 0.549
The HDI is a valuable tool for measuring and comparing the level of development of different countries. It is also used to track progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).