Concept of social work and social work administration

Concept of Administration:

Modern nations are based on democratic principles and ideologies of public welfare. The principles f people’s participation in governmental work and policy for people’s welfare generated and activated governmental work and involved the government. Basically the developing countries implemented different social policies for the weaker.This demanded state intervention and the concept of welfare signifies wide sense of socio-economic development came into existence. In India, after independence with the advancement of Planning Commissions’ work, a number of voluntary organizations were come into existence.

The applications of management into voluntary organizations are became demand and necessary. The administrative theories were not new to Organizational Functions in connection to social scientists; they developed a number of theories to suit the Social Welfare Organizational work. Previously these theories were considered as the back bone of “Public Administration”. The importance of administration came to lime light. If we define the “Administration” then we have to search its origin. The word “Administer” is derived the Latin word “ad” and ‘minister’ .This means to “to administrate to” ,”to serve” or “to manage” .The Dictionary meaning of administration is the management not only the management affairs ,rather it has universal application in nature in all the organizational discipline.

This meaning

Administration is the management of affairs. Thus, the meaning of administer to manage or direct of serve. However ,In order to render social services to the needy sections of the population, one requires not merely devotion and dedication but method , organization , administrative efficiency and adequate knowledge of budgeting , accounting , public relations , etc .The spending of public money ,involves accountability. Both the governmental official and the voluntary worker have to understand this through effective administration. In this paper a social work student gained the knowledge of theoretical knowledge of how n to run an organization as well as observe various organizations administrative structure and functions.

This is true to the sense, for any developmental work an organization is necessary and for running an organization for people’s development, planning is necessary decision, recruitment of good staffs, budgets are the associated elements which make success the organizational work .Thus different views and comments were related as:

·        One group (Integral) -viewed that all activities like physical, psychological, clerical, and managerial attaining the purpose comprise administration, Where as

·         Managerial view suggested that only administration is concerned with the management, direction, supervision and control of human being are to next. In simply it says for a definite objective, individuals brought together and it is the need of application of administration as “doing the work” properly.

The persons who are responsible they are in charge of ordering, forwarding and facilitating with a joint initiation for achieving the goal needs to work under an administration purview . As we say earlier that profession of social work is now no more limited to a person or a group only. Major social problems now professionally handled by constructive and creative projects and programmes .If there will no implementing agency how we can handle the situation professionally. We are using the term “Professionally” which is a present time demand. It means that “Skill Development” is necessary and adaptation of knowledge and skill development of the profession for the solutions of the social problems depends upon the effective and efficient functioning of executives related to administrative success.

Administrative principles intervention into social welfare organizational work requires knowledge, skill and attitudes development among the executives who will handle the objective of an organisation successfully and effectively. It is a process which transforms community resources into programme of community service. This transformation is according to goals, policies and standards which have been agreed upon by those involved into organisational work. The administrative skills prepare the social work practitioner to play his role as a. Organisational Employee b.Professional Service Provider c. playing different role as supervisor, supervisee, staffs

Thus administration of social agencies translates the provisions of social legislation into law and effectively practices it through proper planning and decision making to establish an organisation .This is a process of attaining objectives of system of co- ordination and cooperative effort. So administration is a process of defining        

SOCIAL WORK ADMINISTRATION:

Social Work Administration provided knowledge on Administrative Applications on Social Welfare Organisations or a Project functioning for social welfare which is similar to an Organisation. For professional proficiency a social worker understand the value and need of administrative application in “Social Work”. Social Work Administration is only application of administrative principles to Social Work which builds proficiency, effectiveness and goal achievement in Project Administration. The project may be short or long but to run an organisation, administrative principles are highly necessary. In single lines “Administration denotes the purposeful application of knowledge, skills, and values to such tasks of defining objectives and planning programs, mobilizing and maintaining resources, and evaluating outcomes”.

 Definitions of Social Work Administrati

Beavers (1950): 

Administration “as the processes of means by which the aims of an organization are determined, plans made for achieving these aims and the plans carried

2-Tead (1939): 

“Administration is the process of direction, oversight, coordination and stimulation in an agency designed to carry out some agreed purpose with economy and effectiveness in the means employed (material and personnel) and with all possible regard for the claims of the individuals

3- Leopard Maya (1945): Administration may be defined “as the determination and clarification of function; the formulation of policies and procedures; the delegation of authority; the selection, supervision and appropriate resources to the end so that the purposes of the agency may be

4.-Arlien Johnson (1947): Administration as “a process and method by which objectives of program are transformed into reality through a structure and a mode of operation that make possible the coordinated and unified work of people in the movement towards the defined

5.-Kidneigh (1950): Administration “as the process of transforming social policy into social services a two way process (1) transforming policy into concrete social services and (2) the use of experience in recommending modification of

6.-Spenser (1950): 

“Administration is the conscious direction of the internal relationships and activities of enterprise towards the achievement of goals”. She also outlines that it encompasses” the conscious intervention in the interaction forces operating between the agency and the larger community of which it is a part”.

7. Friedlander (1955):

“Administration of social agencies translates the provisions of social legislation and the aims of private philanthropy and religious charities into the dynamics of services and benefits of

8.- Dunham (1962): 

“Administration as the process of “supporting or facilitating activities which are necessary and incidental to the giving of direct service by a social and policies, and executive leadership to routine operations such as keeping records and accounts and carrying on maintenance

9. -Stein (1970): Administration “as process of defining and attaining the objectives of an organization through a system of coordinated and cooperative effort”

Evolution of Social Work Administration:

   In the pre-independence period voluntary agencies were mainly financed by the local contributions and the efforts of few philanthropists like local zamindars , rich man, land lords, businessmen or eminent industrialists .with the socialization of natural resources and state deciding to undertake social welfare progrmmes ,the growth of private charity has not been increasing in proportion to the increase in the number of agencies

In the nineties the proportion of the state assistance has gone up to 90 percent. A social work student in the 20th century looked out the developments and the country best utilization of funding’s for the poverty stricken peoples or the vulnerable groups. Detailed developments are discussing below.

Stages of Development

·    First Phase & Early Stage

 

The different phases of development of administration as methods of social work started earlier in 1874 where National Conference of Charities and Corrections resolved that people, their social problems and delivery of social services should be the concern of leaders leading to emphasis on administrative problems and issues. The observation made by Anna L. Dawes Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1893 at the International Congress of Charities, Corrections and Philanthropy that schools should organize to train workers to help to provide effective social services to those in need is an important landmark in this direction. In 1897, Mary E. Richmond, then General Secretary of Charity Organization Society of Baltimore, Maryland made same observations at National Conference of Charities and Corrections in United States. These recommendations were made mainly due to the non availability of competent personnel to take the place of generation than passing off the scene .In the beginning of the 20th century; the theme of social administration  was introduced into a few British Universities. For example, in 1901 the London School of Sociology and Economics was established. Thus various training courses started around the world due to this development.

·SPhase

From 1900 to 1930s the social work has been identified and recognized as an occupation in which social case work has been recognized as dominant methods of this emerging profession. As an effort in the direction of intensive professionalization:

1.    Social work was introduced in hospitals, schools, judicial organizations, psychiatric

2.    Schools of social work were established,

3.    Professional organizations were formed were formed for monitoring and setting standards of social work

Thus in this period knowledge and competence in social case work was taken as the foundation of all forms of professional practice and administration was not ordinarily distinguished from direct practice, nor thought of as a separate function.

·Third Phase

In this phase need of both the partners work. Governmental intensified work need involvement of local human resources .Recognition of administration in social work was intensified due to the involvement of Government in providing economic assistance to millions unemployed and economically dislocated people. For this a public welfare system was established by creating federal emergency Relief Administration in 1934 followed by passing of Social Security Act in 1935 which has created a federal state system of public assistance.

Thus, during the period of 1930 to 1960 administration has emerged a legitimate method of social work practice but still it was treated as minor method in some quarter. However it got same institutional acceptance which need further development in order to ve accepted as equal partner in realm of social work development in order to be accepted a equal partner in realm of social work methods.

Fourth Phase

In early 1960s, efforts were directed to develop theory and practice of social work administration which is evident from the following:

1.    Establishment of institute in 1960 for conduction research in social work administration and community organization by the National Association of Social Workers.

2.    In 1962 and 1969 the Council on Social Work Education permitted individual schools to experiment with new approaches to education for practice making room for specialized course on social work Council on Social

·Fifth Phase

In 1960s there was massive growth in social welfare programs resulting into unparalleled growth in social welfare expenditure. There were problems to manage this expenditure and massive enterprise of social welfare programs mainly due to a gradual shrinking of the physical dividend because of the combined effect of several tax cuts, the Vietnam war, increased social welfare expenditure, inflation and reduced rate of economic growth leading to policies of scarcity.

In this way, administration in social work becomes more visible. Consequently, the following propositions of curriculum study are noteworthy. The social work curriculum should provide for all students such knowledge and experience in the area of administration as well as support subsequent on the job learning and the application of professional knowledge in positions involving executive and sub- executive level responsibilities.

· Twentieth Century Development

Twentieth Century concepts like Hunger or Poverty is the biggest challenge for the Afro-Asian Countries. The United Nation has organized a number of Poverty Alleviations Programme for these countries. After the independence, the constitution of India was worked from 1950. For the first time all welfare activities was getting the sanction of the constitution. The constitution is the written document clearly directs various disciplinary measures for the welfare of the people. Like U.S India is a not purely a Federal Country rather it is the combination of both unitary and federal structure. The constitution is the principal source of power where various welfare polices has been prepared by Loksabha the principal legislative organ of India .In independent India, social policies have been evolved mainly from Indian Constitution which declared India as a sovereign,, socialist, secular, democratic republic based on social, economic and political justice; liberty of thought, expression, belief in faith and worship, and equality of status and of opportunity. For this, Indian Constitution made provision for Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. Through these provisions, social policies have been evolved for ensuring equity and social justice among different sections of society.

Policies need according to the Demand of Time:

1.    National Population Policy of 1976 and 2000.

2.    National Policy for Children of 2001 and 2004.

3.     National Policy for Employment of Women, 2001.

4.    National Youth Policy, 2003.

5.    National Policy for the Older Persons, 1999.

6.    National Policy for Persons with Disabilities, 2006.

7.     National Water Policies, 2002

8.    National policy of education, 1968 and 1986.

9.    National environment policy, 2006.

10. National urban housing and habitat policy, 2007.

11.  National policy on voluntary sector, 2007.

 

APPROACH TO ADMINISTRATION-BUREAUCRATIC HUMAN RELATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL:

·        Administrative – Bureaucratic – Human relations – Technological

·        Division of work or specialization - This increases productivity in both technical and managerial work.

·        Authority and responsibility - These are imperative for an organizational member to accomplish the organizational objectives.

·        Discipline -  Members of the organization should honour the objectives of the organization. They should also comply with the rules and regulations of the organization.

·        Unity of command - This means taking orders from and being responsible to only one superior.

·        Unity of direction - Members of the organization should jointly work toward the same goals.

·        ubordination of individual interest to general interest - The interest of the organization should not become subservient to individual interests or the interest of a group of employees.

·        Remuneration of personnel - This can be based on diverse factors such as time, job, piece rates, bonuses, profit-sharing or non-financial rewards.

·        Centralization - Management should use an appropriate blend of both centralization and de-centralization of authority and decision making.

·        Calar chain - If two members who are on the same level of hierarchy have to work together to accomplish a project, they need not follow the hierarchy level, but can interact with each other on a 'gang plank' if acceptable to the higher officials. Order - The organization has a place for everything and everyone who ought to be so engaged.Equity - Fairness, justice and equity should prevail in the organization. Stability of tenure of personnel Job security improves performance. An employee requires some time to get used to new work and do it well.Initiative This should be encouraged and stimulated.Esprit de corps Pride, allegiance and a sense of belonging are essential for good performance. Union is strength.The concept of line and staff  - The concept of line and staff is relevant organizations which are large and require specialization of skill to achieve organizational goals. Line personnel are those who work directly to achieve organizational goals. Staff personnel include those whose basic function is to support and help line personnel.

·        Committees - Committees are part of the organization. Members from the same or different hierarchical levels from different departments can form committees around a common goal. They can be given different functions, such as managerial, decision making, recommending or policy formulation. Committees can take diverse forms, such as boards, commissions, task groups or ad hoc committees. Committees can be further divided according to their functions. In agricultural research organizations, committees are formed for research, staff evaluation or even allocation of land for experiments.

Bureaucratic

Bureaucratic management is an approach for providing a clearly defined set of rules followed by a clear organizational structure exactly quoted as ‘hierarchy’ by Max Weber. This approach defines a clear chain of command and a state where there is a clearly defined set of rules to be followed by each level of hierarchy.

Considering the organization as a segment of broader society, Weber (1947) based the concept of the formal organization on the following principles:

·        Structure In the organization, positions should be arranged in a hierarchy, each with a particular, established amount of responsibility and authority.

·        Specialization Tasks should be distinguished on a functional basis, and then separated according to specialization, each having a separate chain of command.

·        Predictability and stability The organization should operate according to a system of procedures consisting of formal rules and regulations.

·        Rationality Recruitment and selection of personnel should be impartial

·        Democracy Responsibility and authority should be recognized by designations and not by persons.

Weber's theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions (Hicks and Gullett, 1975) such as rigidity, 
Human Relation
It recognized the importance of individual or group behavior and emphasized human relations. Based on the Hawthorne experiments, the neoclassical approach emphasized social or human relationships among the operators, researchers and supervisors. It was argued that these considerations were more consequential in determining productivity than mere changes in working conditions. Productivity increases were achieved as a result of high morale, which was influenced by the amount of individual, personal and intimate attention workers received.

The classical approach stressed the formal organization. It was mechanistic and ignored major aspects of human nature. In contrast, the neoclassical approach introduced an informal organization structure and emphasized the following principles:

The individual An individual is not a mechanical tool but a distinct social being, with aspirations beyond mere fulfillment of a few economic and security works. Individuals differ from each other in pursuing these desires. Thus, an individual should be recognized as interacting with social and economic factors.The work group The neoclassical approach highlighted the social facets of work groups or informal organizations that operate within a formal organization. The concept of 'group' and its synergistic benefits were considered important.Participative management Participative management or decision making permits workers to participate in the decision making process. This was a new form of management to ensure increases in productivity.

Technical approach

It is not just job enlargement and enrichment which is important, but also transforming technology into a meaningful tool in the hands of the users. The socio-technical systems approach is based on the premise that every organization consists of the people, the technical system and the environment . People (the social system) use tools, techniques and knowledge (the technical system) to produce goods or services valued by consumers or users (who are part of the organization's external environment). Therefore, an equilibrium among the social system, the technical system and the environment is necessary to make the organization more effective.

Social administration:

 

Social administration The study of social arrangements and policies aimed at meeting social needs-especially state welfare systems. Academic social administration has typically adopted a practical, problem-solving, reforming approach, frequently criticized as being empiricist, prescriptive, and narrow; theoretically informed approaches to welfare are now more common. However, as the processes of transferring responsibilities for public welfare from the state to the private sector precede, public-sector directors and managers increasingly replace administrators, and in this context the term social administration sounds somewhat dated. 

 

1.    Primarily refers to guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect the living conditions conducive to human welfare.

2.    It is an interdisciplinary and applied subject concerned with the analysis of societies' responses to social need.

3.    It seeks to foster in its students a capacity to understand theory and evidence drawn from a wide range of social science disciplines, including economics, sociology, psychology, geography, history, law, philosophy and political science. Social Policy is focused on those aspects of the economy, society and policy that are necessary to human existence and the means by which they can be provided. These basic human needs include: water, food, and shelter, a sustainable and safe environment, the promotion of health and treatment of the sick, the care and support of those unable to live a fully independent life; and the education and training of individuals to a level that enables them fully to participate in their society".

4.    It was developed to meet the needs of people who would be working in the public         services. Social administration is the area of the field concerned with the practicalities of service organization and delivery.

 

Welfare administration:

Social welfare administration refers to the process of applying professional competence to implementing certain programme of social welfare through socialagencies in fulfillment objects and policy of the agency The concept of welfare while it is important in ancient times, the emergence of modern nation states saw welfare undergoing change. This change was clearly associated with the notion of democracy. Further the importance given to individual rights and concepts ofliberty, equality and freedom influenced the nature of the treatment meted out to people. The development of democratic governance systems was concomitant with the provisions of taking care of the needy and the destitute. Even though capitalist developments ran parallel to democratic thought processes, the sociopolitical contexts influenced the way the individual in society was conceived. Each individual as a citizen was entitled to certain rights associated with certain obligations. The negative effects of the industrial development on certain sections of the population ledto the analysis of such issues in depth with the help of some social surveys on the poor and marginalized,(surveys by Booth and Rowntree in Britain). Such research base provided a rationale for the development of provisions for the welfare of these sections. Associated with these are the developments in the profession of social work in terms of the settlement house movement and the charities organization of societies. Methodological sharpening and fine tuning took place in these periods. Social welfare administration was then very essential for the welfare state emergence and sustenance. With the development of the welfare state all the activities undertaken bythe state are called welfare activities. Such well defined activities when grouped together as activities for social welfare may then be brought under the sphere ofsocial welfare administration. Because of the contextual nature in which welfareunfolded in various countries, each with its peculiarneeds and concerns, state provisions for welfare emerged differently in different countries. Thus thedefinition of what constitutes welfare varies fromcountries to countries and from time to time. Concomitant with this the focus of welfare administration also varies. Since many definitions of social welfare administration involve the term social services, it is useful to look at some terms, before we proceed further. Social services are a wider term which includes ‘social welfare services’. Social welfare services are the enabling services designed for those groups which cannot take full advantage of the established services such as educational, health, recreational or other facilities. In addition it is to be understood that social work is a discipline using specialized techniques for administering social welfare services, while social welfare is an overall term signifying a state of total wellbeing of the community. John C Kidneigh 1950 : social work administration is “the process of transforming social policy into social services ……..a two-way process: 1) transforming policy into concrete social services, and 2) the use of experience in recommending modification of policy”. Social work dictionary defines administration socialwork as ‘methods used by those who have administrative responsibility to determine organizational goals for asocial agency or other unit;acquire resources and allocate them to carry out a program; coordinate activities towards achieving selected goals; and monitor, assess and make necessary changes in processes and structure to improve effectiveness and efficiency. In social work, the terms often used synonymously with management”.Arthur Dunham 1962 describes administration as the process of supporting or facilitating activities which are necessary and incidental to the giving of direct service by a social agency. Administrative activities range from the determination of function and policies, and executive leadership to routine operations such as keeping records and accounts and carrying on maintenance services.Harleigh Trecker interprets social work administration as a process of working with people in ways that release and relate their energies so that they use all available resources to accomplish the purpose of providing needed community services and programs. The major principles of social work administration as:

·        administration is a continuous dynamic process’s) Process set into motion in order to accomplish a common purpose or goal. 

·        Resources of people and material harnessed to achieve the common goal.

·        The above is achieved through coordination and cooperation. implicit in these definition are the elements of planning, organizing and leadership. Skidmore (1995) offers a summary ‘Social welfare administration may be thought of as the action of staff members who utilize social processes to transform social policies of agencies into the delivery of social services …….Basic processes most often used are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Social work profession involves enhancing the social functioning of individuals and groups for which various methods are employed. Case work, group work and community organization are considered as core methods. In addition social welfare administration, social research and social action have developed subsequently as separate methods which are found to be very effective in performing the social work role.

It has been found that every case work, group work or community organization involves agencies as institutions for service delivery. This service delivery is the major mode by which social welfare services are rendered. In that case it becomes imperative to understand the nature of welfare services and how these are administered. The method of social welfare administration enables one to acquire an understanding of the principles, knowledge of administration as well as develop skills in efficient and effective service delivery. Administration involves the ability to bring to bear on decision making the knowledge and the information which are essential for wise judgments. Such knowledge and information are painstakingly acquired by education, by experience and by deep immersion in the work of social agency. The ability to perform well and wisely, to steer the social agency constructed for humane purposes, is best acquired by professional social work education and experience, combined with powerful identification of social work values and ethics. The ability to put all these together is to be sought in the professional social worker rather than in the professional administrator.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:

  Public administration is like any other administration which is carried out in public interest. Before we dwell deeper into understanding public administration it would be beneficial to try and see how different authors have tried to define what administration is public administration comprises those activities that are involved in carrying out the policies and programs of governments. It is regarded as the coordination of collective efforts to implement public policies as expressed in laws and interpreted by Courts. It is thought of as having no role in policy making. The traditional view identifies public administration with the administrative side of government as opposed to the legislative and judicial side. It presents too formalistic a picture of Public Administration.

·        It covers all three branches- executive, legislative, judicial and their inter-relationships.

·         It covers all three branches of government, although it tends to be 

·         It provides regulatory and service function to the people in order to attain good life.

·        Differs significantly from private administration, especially in its Is interdisciplinary in nature as it draws upon other social sciences like political science, economics and sociology.

Business administration:

The term, business operations and decision making, as well as the efficient organization of people and other resources, to direct activities towards common goals and objectives. In general, administration refers to the broader management function, including the associated financepersonnel and MIS services.

The administration of a business is interchangeable with the performance or management of business operations, maybe including important decision making. Thus it is likely to include the efficient organization of people and other resources so as to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. The word is derived from the Middle English word administration, which is in turn derived from the French administration, itself derived from the Latin administration — a compounding of ad and ministries. Administrator can occasionally serve as the title of the general manager or company secretary who reports to a corporate board of directors. This title is archaic, but, in many enterprises, the general management function, including the associated Finance, Personnel and management information systems services, is what is meant by the term "administration". In some organizational analyses, management is viewed as a subset of administration, specifically associated with the technical and mundane elements within an organization's operation. It stands distinct from executive or strategic work. Alternatively, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of routine office tasks, usually internally oriented and reactive rather than proactive.

·        The term also refers to the management of a business, i.e., management in all aspects. This includes finance, marketing, human resources, and accounting. It also includes business operations.

·        Business administration is the process of organizing the business’s personnel and resources to meet business goals and objectives.”

·        These processes include human resources, as well as operations management, financial management, and marketing management.”

·        Working individually and as a team.

·        Organizing and supervising staff members.

·        Hiring new people.

·        Motivating employees.

·        Reporting and overseeing the main aspects of the business.

PHILOSOPHY:

Social Welfare Administration

Social welfare administration is a process through which social policy transformed into social services. It involves the administration of public and private agencies. the use of experience in recommending modification of policy. This definition, of course, encompasses the idea that administration is the process of transforming policies into action programmes.

Harleigh Tracker (1971) interprets social welfare administration as a “process of working with people in ways that release and relate their energies so that they use all available resources to accomplish the purpose of providing needed community services and programmes.”

Features :

Although the concept of administration is applicable in a broader sense to areas including social welfare, business and government, there are certain distinctive features of social welfare administration. A summary of features highlighting distinctiveness of social welfare administration is given below:

It is concerned with social agencies and helps them to achieve their objectives within target community. It is specifically concerned with identification of social objectives and formulation/ implementation of programmes.

From functional point of view, it encompasses three facets of social problems:

Restoration of impaired social functioning;

·        Provision of resources, social and individual, for more effective social functioning;

·        Prevention of social dysfunction.

Despite variations in size, scope, structure and type of programmes, every agency has a governing board as an apex body for final decision making. The board is generally represented by the community it intends to serve.

Social welfare administration requires optimum utilization of its available resources together with active community participation, so that the ultimate goal of programmes can be achieved properly.

Social welfare agencies have to earmark certain portion of their resources for survival. But this should not limit their capacity to achieve in quantitative and qualitative terms.Social welfare agencies generally function in a co-operative manner and ensure participation of all the members in administration of their activities.There is a growing trend in these agencies to recruit professionally qualified manpower. It has helped in introducing professional approach in their functioning.

Nature of Social Welfare Administration

·        Social Welfare Administration as an Art

The following arguments have been given to support that social welfare administration is an art.

·        It can be acquired: No doubt art is a naturalpersonal

Similarly, the art of social welfare administration can be acquired. Talented persons become the best administrators under proper training. Thus so far acquisition is concerned social welfare administration is also like other arts.

ii)        It is subjective in nature: A painter contributes

iii)      Practical application of knowledge: Art is the

Social Welfare Administration as a Science

Science is a systematic study of knowledge. Those who believe that social welfare administration is a science point out that there are certain specific and clear principles on which day to day administration of social welfare programmes is being run and managed. They also argue that these principles are based on sound and rational principles, which are also considered universal.

The following arguments have been put forward to justify that social welfare administration is a science:

Application of Scientific Method: The claim of a discipline to be called a science depends on whether the scientific method of study is applicable to it. Social welfare administration can be called a science, because the scientific method of study equally is applicable to it, as in the case of other social sciences.

Critical Examination: Critical examination and study of evidence is the prime requisite of any scientific study. This is possible in social welfare administration also.

Universal Guidelines: Universal principles of social welfare administration also provide the colorings of science.  Even  if  we  cannot  use  all  the guidelines in a similar manner, these guidelines certainly  helps  the  administrator  in  proper implementation  of  social  welfare  programmes.

 SOCIAL WELFARE ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:

 Social welfare Administration, like any other administration (Government / business) requires clear objectives and policies and an efficient organizational structure with precise staff organization, sound methods of selection, recruitment and promotion of personnel, decent working conditions, and fiscal accounting and control to guarantee for responsible management. Nevertheless, there are important differences between social service administration and other types of government administration.

Social welfare programmes are, therefore, directed to ameliorate their conditions. Therefore, it requires proper 

Social Welfare administration requires:

1.    Faith in the Philosophy and Methods of Social Welfare

2.     Knowledge about social legislation

3.    Familiarity with social work practice.

Socioeconomic development

Socio-economic development is the process of social and economic development in a society. Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy and levels of employment. Changes in less-tangible factors are also considered, such as personal dignity, freedom of association, personal safety and freedom from fear of physical harm, and the extent of participation in civil society. Causes of socio-economic impacts are, for example, new technologies, changes in laws, changes in the physical environment and ecological changes.

Socioeconomic development, like the definition of development adopted here, emphasizes progress in terms of economic and social factors within a geographic unit. Economic development is the process of raising the level of prosperity through increased production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Social development, on the other hand, refers to the complexity of social dynamics (the interplay of social structures, processes and relationships) and focuses on

1.    the social concerns of the people as objectives of development and

2.    People-centered, participatory approaches to development. Social development is about inclusiveness, social justice and the common good. Indicators of social development provide comparative information about areas such as income, poverty, employment, employment security, education, health, crime and civic participation. Sometimes social development indicator lists also have included information about the environment.

Richard Estes, a co-developer of Hong Kong’s social report in 2000, noted that the report included a sub-index on environmental quality with ratings of solid waste recycling, beaches, public open space and fresh water consumption. The purpose of economic development is to improve the social and material well-being of all individuals and social institutions with the goal of achieving the highest possible level of human development. Socioeconomic development, therefore, requires the integration of economic and social development. Progress in the quality of social and economic life should only be seen as progress if it is rights based and minimally affects, conserves or improves the natural environment.

 


Comments

Thank You

Contact Form

Send