Casework is a critical component of social work practice that involves working closely with individuals, families, and communities to address their needs, challenges, and aspirations. To effectively support clients, social workers employ a range of approaches, including diagnostic, functional, and psychosocial approaches. These approaches provide frameworks and tools to assess, understand, and intervene in the complex dynamics of individuals' lives. In this blog post, we will explore each of these approaches in detail, highlighting their key features and providing examples of their application in casework.
The diagnostic approach in casework focuses on the identification and classification of individuals' conditions, problems, or disorders. This approach draws heavily from the medical model and employs standardised diagnostic tools and criteria to assess and categorise clients' symptoms or difficulties. The primary goal of the diagnostic approach is to establish a clear understanding of the individual's clinical condition, which can then guide appropriate treatment interventions.
According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013), diagnostic criteria for mental disorders are outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).
For instance, when working with a client experiencing symptoms of major depressive disorder, a social worker using the diagnostic approach would assess the client's presenting symptoms, duration, and severity to determine if they meet the criteria outlined in the DSM-5. This process aids in accurately diagnosing the client's condition, enabling the social worker to develop an appropriate treatment plan or refer the client to specialised mental health professionals.
The functional approach focuses on understanding how individuals' behaviours, emotions, and interactions with their environment serve adaptive or maladaptive functions. It emphasises the influence of the social context and the role it plays in shaping an individual's actions and experiences. By analysing the functions behind clients' behaviours, social workers can gain insights into the underlying needs, motivations, and patterns that contribute to their challenges.
According to Padesky and Mooney (2012), the functional approach is a key component of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), which examines the relationship between thoughts, emotions, and behaviours.
For example, suppose a social worker is working with a child who frequently displays disruptive behaviour in school. Rather than focusing solely on the behaviour itself, the social worker using the functional approach would explore the antecedents and consequences of the behaviour to identify the purpose it serves for the child. They might discover that the child acts out to gain attention from peers or escape difficult academic tasks. Understanding these underlying functions helps the social worker develop interventions that address the root causes and provide alternative, more adaptive strategies.
The psychosocial approach emphasises the interplay between an individual's psychological and social factors in shaping their well-being and functioning. It recognises that individuals are influenced by their internal experiences (e.g., thoughts and emotions) as well as the social systems and environments in which they live. This approach considers the broader context and social determinants of clients' lives, such as their relationships, cultural background, socioeconomic status, and access to resources.
According to the National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 2017), the psychosocial approach highlights the importance of addressing both individual and social factors in social work practice.
For instance, if a social worker is working with a client struggling with substance abuse, they would take into account not only the individual's addiction but also the underlying social factors that contribute to it. This might include exploring the client's social support system, employment status, housing stability, and exposure to trauma. By adopting a psychosocial approach, the social worker can design interventions that address the client's addiction while simultaneously addressing the underlying social determinants that perpetuate the cycle of substance abuse.
The psychosocial approach also emphasises the importance of considering clients' strengths and resources. Instead of solely focusing on deficits or pathology, social workers using this approach aim to empower clients by identifying and harnessing their existing strengths and capabilities. This strengths-based perspective promotes resilience, self-efficacy, and the development of coping strategies that can enhance clients' overall well-being.
Saleebey (2009) argues that the strengths perspective, which is inherent in the psychosocial approach, promotes client empowerment and fosters a positive outlook on individual capabilities.
For example, when working with a single parent struggling to find employment, a social worker using the psychosocial approach would not only assess the barriers and challenges but also identify the client's skills, education, and support networks. By recognising the client's strengths and resources, the social worker can help the client develop a comprehensive plan that includes job-seeking strategies, accessing available community resources, and building a support network for emotional and practical assistance.
In casework, social workers employ various approaches to effectively support individuals, families, and communities. The diagnostic approach provides a framework for identifying and categorising clinical conditions, ensuring appropriate treatment interventions. The functional approach emphasises understanding the functions behind individuals' behaviours, enabling social workers to address underlying needs and motivations. The psychosocial approach considers the interplay between psychological and social factors, recognises the importance of social determinants, and empowers clients by focusing on their strengths and resources.
While each approach offers unique perspectives and tools, they are not mutually exclusive. Social workers often integrate elements from these approaches to tailor their interventions to the specific needs and circumstances of their clients. By utilising a comprehensive approach that combines diagnostic, functional, and psychosocial perspectives, social workers can provide holistic and effective support, fostering positive change and enhancing the well-being of those they serve.
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.