Gender differences in emotion are a major topic of research in feminist psychology. Emotion, according to feminist psychologists, is culturally controlled and that the differences lie in the expression of emotion rather than the actual experience. The manner in which a person expresses his or her emotions is defined by socially imposed display rules that guide the acceptable forms of expression for specific people and feelings.
Emotion stereotypes portray women as the more emotional sex. Feminist psychologists, on the other hand, argue that women are only perceived as having stronger feelings of sadness, happiness, fear, and surprise. Men, on the other hand, are thought to be more likely to express dominant emotions such as anger. Feminist psychologists believe that men and women are socialised to view and express emotions differently throughout their lives. From infancy, mothers use more facial expression when speaking to female babies, and as they grow older, they use more emotion words in conversation with them.
Peers further socialise girls and boys, with girls rewarded for being sensitive and emotional and boys rewarded for dominance and lack of most emotional expression. Psychologists have also discovered that women, on average, are better at decoding emotion using nonverbal cues. Facial expression, tone of voice, and posture are examples of these signals. Gender differences in decoding ability have been observed in studies as early as age three and a half. The book Man and Woman, Boy and Girl examines intersex patients to explain why social factors are more important than biological factors in gender identity and gender roles, and it has reintroduced nature vs nurture debates (Money & Ehrhardt, 1972).
Many social scientists study various aspects of the "glass ceiling effect," which refers to the invisible but powerful barriers that prevent many women from progressing beyond a certain level in the workplace and other public institutions. According to the US Department of Labor, women made up 47 percent of the workforce in the United States in 2010. However, there are only a few women who hold high-level positions in corporations. Women make up only 5% of Fortune 500 CEOs (in 2014), 19% of S&P500 company boards, and 26% of college presidents. Women make up 19.1 percent of U.S. Representatives, 21 percent of U.S. Senators, 8 percent of state governors, and similarly low percentages of state elected officials in 2017. Women of colour are underrepresented in comparison to white women. The United States lags behind other countries in terms of gender parity in government representation; according to the 2014 Global Gender Gap Report, the United States ranked 33rd out of 49 so-called "high-income" countries, and 83rd out of 137 countries surveyed. "Women affiliated with the American Academy of Psychoanalysis were among the first to investigate topics such as women's fear of success and neurotic dependency. They recognised the cultural forces impeding women's advancement in non-domestic spheres, particularly the pressures inherent in a male-dominated society." Much scholarship focuses on structural factors impeding women's advancement in public spheres, rather than identifying the source of the problem as women themselves.
Women also experience a "sticky floor effect." The sticky floor effect occurs when women lack a career path or a ladder to higher positions. When women have children, they face a stumbling block known as the maternal wall, which occurs when women receive fewer desirable assignments and opportunities for advancement after having a child. Women are labelled as "nourishing facilitators" by patriarchy, implying that they are not mentally strong enough to participate in the aggressive male-dominated workforce without suffering psychological and emotional consequences. When women begin working at a company, their advancement may be hampered if a senior level employee does not actively participate in the development and career planning of junior employees. Because there are fewer women than men in higher-level company positions, there are fewer female mentors to assist new female employees. A woman with a male mentor may have difficulty bonding and receiving advice from outside of work experiences. This is because men typically exclude women from sports such as basketball and golf. Cultural differences, stereotypes, and perceived threats are all factors that limit women's leadership. Women are stereotyped as being overly emotional if they show even a smidgeon of sensitivity. Employers generally do not regard sensitive, soft people as capable of making difficult decisions or taking on leadership roles. However, if a woman displays male traits she is portrayed as mean, butch, and aggressive. Women are perceived as less competent when they exhibit "non-feminine" characteristics and are not taken seriously. These women don't brag about their achievements and feel guilty for being able to transcend stereotypes of feminine emotion and thought in order to become masculine in their jobs, just to be successful or equal to men. Career women, whose professional status is dependent on appropriating masculine traits, are prone to depression. Recent research has linked the concept of stereotype threat with girls' motivations to avoid success as an individual difference. Girls may avoid participation in certain male-dominated fields due to real and perceived obstacles to success in those fields, though there is little evidence to support this claim (e.g., Spencer et al. 1999).
Cultural differences between managers and workers are another source of discrimination and stress. For example, if a manager is white and has an employee of colour, if they do not understand or respect each other, stress may be created. Advancement is unlikely without trust and respect. Our depiction of gender identity is predominantly white and middle-class. Black women describe White women as intelligent, manipulative, and privileged, whereas White women are described as strong, determined, and possessing attitude (Burack, 2002). In Ladies Home Journal, it was written, "There it is, White fear of Black anger" (Edwards 1998: 77). It is not a case of sexual harassment or harassment in general when there are perceived threats at work. The threat is the possibility of women taking over. The more women who work in a workplace, the more threatened a man feels about his job security. In a study of 126 male managers, they were asked to estimate the number of women working at their workplace and whether or not men felt disadvantaged. Men who believed there were a lot of women felt threatened about their job security (Beaton et al., 1996). Alice Eagly and Blair Johnson (1990) discovered that men and women have subtle differences in their leadership styles. Women in positions of power were perceived as more interpersonal and democratic, whereas men were perceived as more task-oriented and autocratic. In reality, men and women both have equally effective leadership styles. A study conducted by Alice Eagly (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995) discovered no overall differences in the effectiveness of male and female leaders in facilitating group goal achievement.
Domestic violence, sexual harassment, childhood sexual abuse, sexual assault, and rape are all examples of gender-based violence, according to feminists. Women's violence can be physical or psychological, and it is not limited by race, economic status, age, ethnicity, or location. Women can be abused by strangers, but the abuser is usually someone the woman knows. Women can be affected by violence in both the short and long term, and they respond to it in a variety of ways. Fear, anxiety, and anger are all emotions that some women express. Others choose to deny it happened and hide their emotions. Women frequently blame themselves for what happened and try to justify it by claiming that they somehow deserved it. Psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression are common among victims of violence. In addition to the psychological consequences, many women suffer physical injuries as a result of the violence, which necessitate medical attention.
The work of Jean Baker Miller, whose book Toward a New Psychology of Women proposes that "growth-fostering relationships are a central human necessity and that disconnections are the source of psychological problems," is the foundation of relational-cultural theory. Relational-cultural theory, inspired by Betty Friedan's Feminine Mystique and other 1960s feminist classics, proposes that "isolation is one of the most damaging human experiences and is best treated by reconnecting with other people," and that therapists should "foster an atmosphere of empathy and acceptance for the patient, even at the cost of the therapist's neutrality." Based on clinical observations, the theory sought to demonstrate that "there was nothing wrong with women, but rather with the way modern culture viewed them."
Transnational Feminist Psychology
Arnett noted in 2008 that the majority of articles in American Psychological Association journals were about US populations, despite the fact that US citizens make up only 5% of the world's population. He complained that psychologists had no basis for assuming universal psychological processes and extrapolating research findings to the rest of the world's population. In 2010, Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan reported a systemic bias in psychology studies involving participants from WEIRD ("western, educated, industrialised, rich, and democratic") societies. Despite the fact that only one-eighth of the world's population lives in WEIRD regions, the researchers claim that 60–90% of psychology studies are conducted on participants from these areas. Arnett (2008), Altmaier and Hall (2008), and Morgan-Consoli et al. (2018) identified the Western bias in research and theory as a serious problem, noting that psychologists are increasingly applying psychological principles developed in W.E.I.R.D. regions in their research, clinical work, and consultation with populations worldwide.
The term transnational feminist psychology was coined by Kurtis, Adams, Grabe, and Else-Quest (also called transnational psychology). The term refers to a method of studying, understanding, and addressing the impact of colonisation, imperialism, migration, and globalisation on women around the world that is based on the principles of transnational feminism developed through interdisciplinary work in postcolonial and feminist studies. Kurtis and Adams proposed reconsidering, de-naturalizing, and de-universalizing psychological science by applying these principles and a context-sensitive cultural psychology lens. Grabe and Else-Quest also proposed the concept of "transnational intersectionality," which broadens current conceptions of intersectionality by incorporating global forces into the analysis of how oppressive institutions are linked. Kurtis and Adams emphasised the importance of people in the non-Western, "Majority World" (areas where the majority of the world's population lives) in countering Western biases and revising current theory in order to develop a more pluralistic psychological science. Machizawa, Collins, and Rice organised a Summit in 2015 to further develop "transnational psychology." Transnational psychological perspectives were applied to research, assessment, interventions, migration, domestic violence, education, career, human trafficking, sexuality, pedagogy, and other topics in psychology by participa