Differential association theory is a criminological theory that was developed by Edwin Sutherland in 1939. The theory states that criminal behavior is learned through interaction with others. Individuals who are exposed to more definitions favorable to crime than definitions unfavorable to crime are more likely to become criminals.
Sutherland's theory was first published in the third edition of his textbook, Principles of Criminology. The theory was revised and expanded in subsequent editions of the textbook, and it was finally published in its definitive form in 1959.
Sutherland's theory has been influential in criminology, and it has been used to explain a wide range of criminal behavior. The theory has also been criticized for being too simplistic, and for failing to take into account individual differences.
The other three options in the question are incorrect. Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who developed the theory of anomie. Max Weber was a German sociologist who developed the theory of rationalization. Robert Mac Iver was a Scottish sociologist who developed the theory of social causation.
I hope this explanation blog is helpful. Please let me know if you have any other questions.
Here are some additional resources that you may find helpful:
Differential Association Theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_association
The Theory of Differential Association: https://www.simplypsychology.org/differential-association-theory.html
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory: https://www.thoughtco.com/differential-association-theory-4689191
UGC NET 2021 Social Work-2021-Q-5
5-Differential Association Theory (1959) is given by